LGZG is a classic TCM formula, which is a mixture of four herbs: Poria, Ramulus
Cinnamomi, Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz, and Radix Glycyrrhizae.
So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang (SCRT, Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang in Chinese, Shoseiryu-to in Japanese) is composed of eight herbal preparations (Ephedrae herba, Paeoniae radix, Glycyrrhizae radix, Zingiberis rhizoma, Cinnamomi ramulus
, Schisandrae fructus, Pinelliae rhizoma, and Asiasari radix) [4-6, 8].
Tangshen formula (TSF), a traditional Chinese medicine composed of Radix Astragali, Radix Rehmanniae, Radix Notoginseng, Radix et Rhizoma Rhei, Fructus Aurantii, Fructus Corni, and Ramulus
Euonymi, has been used to treat DN in clinic [5-7].
Commonly used medicines include Radix Clematidis, Rhizoma Arisaematis, Rhizoma Curcumae Longae , and Ramulus
Blaut, "Degradation of quercetin and luteolin by Eubacterium ramulus
," Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.
Chaihu Guizhi decoction Radix Bupleuri, Radix Scutellariae, Panax ginseng, Pinellia ternata, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens, Fructus jujubae, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Ramulus
Experimental study on the anti-inflammation effect of volatile oil in Ramulus
The following Phasmatodea species were used: Diapherodes gigantea Gmelin, Eurycantha calcarata Lucas, Extatosoma tiaratum Macleay, Medauroidea extradentata Brunner, and Ramulus
nematodes De Haan (Phasmatidae), plus Sipyloideasipylus Westwood (Diapheromeridae), Aretaon asperrimus Redtenbacher (Heteropterygidae), Peruphasma schultei Conle & Hennemann and Anisomorpha buprestoides Stoll (Pseudophasmatidae), and Phyllium siccifolium L (Phylliidae).
However, the mulberry leaf (Folium mori), mulberry fruit (Fructus mori), mulberry branch (Ramulus
mori), and mulberry root (Cortex mori) have been traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.
Chen, "Treatment of stress urinary incontinence by cinnamaldehyde, the major constituent of the chinese medicinal herb ramulus
cinnamomi," Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol.
For instance, microbes living mainly in the intestines of rats (Madhyastha et al., 1992) and bacteria from swine including Eubacterium callanderi from the large intestine and Eubacterium ramulus
from the small intestine were reported to be OTA-degrading strains, degrading almost 100% OTA over a 6 h incubation (Schatzmayr et al., 2006).
Synonyms are Gratidia dicranura Uvarov, 1939 and Ramulus
dicranurus (Uvarov, 1939) (van Harten, pers.