Calcium oxalate crystals known as raphides
were not detected in C.
2010) and some studies indicate that production of COC is increased even as a result of artificial herbivory, as reported for raphides
in Sida rhombifolia (Molano-Flores, 2001).
Some of these turtles eat large amounts of elephant-ear (Colocassia esculenta), which contains needle-like raphides
of oxalic acid monohydrate in its acidic sap.
Spicules: styles, acanthoxea, raphides
3h) indicates the occurrence of what are probably tapetal raphides
, which also are known from other commelinaceous genera and several other related families (Hardy & Stevenson, 2000a, b; Hardy et al.
Idioblasts containing raphides
along the leaf margin region are common (Fig.
The precise assignation of Epilobium species was based on tri-chome and raphides
morphology (Krajsek et al.
Sefa-Dedeh S and SE Kofi-Agyir Starch structure and some properties of cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta) starch and raphides
Each addresses a taphonomic issue with starch identification following cooking, movement of starch through sediments and the problems with the identification of raphides
associated with plant use.
bundles were observed as described for the family Palmae (PRYCHID & RUDALL, 1999).
Bischoff describes the unique way in which the toxin in these plants works: "These plants contain pointy crystals called raphides
in packets within the cells called idioblasts.
Idioblasts with raphides
in the storage parenchyma and chlorenchyma.