In the northwest Pacific basin, even a grid this large typically had only five rawinsondes
at a single time.
Embedding during Exercise Blue Chromite 16, the team successfully deployed two upper air tactical rawinsondes
(sensors attached to weather balloons) in advance of a parachute jump, collecting and relaying real-time upper level wind data to jumpmasters.
Upper-air observations were collected from two rawinsondes
(Figure 1): EOAS-Santiago (MeteoGalicia, Regional Met Office) and A Coruna (AEMET, Spanish Met Office), alternatively launched every 6 hours.
Types of observations used in the analysis include land surface observations of surface pressure; ocean surface observations of sea level pressure and winds; sea level winds inferred from backscatter returns from space-borne radars; conventional upper-air data from rawinsondes
We launched rawinsondes
into six storm systems and made detailed measurements that included ice crystal structure and snow accumulation.
Forecasters at the National Weather Service (NWS) launch rawinsondes
in 72 locations in the lower 48 twice a day at about 1100 UTC and 2300 UTC.
Four research aircraft supplied by NASA investigated precipitation processes and snow cover, and supplemental rawinsondes
and dropsondes were deployed during precipitation events.
satellite-based remote sensing, surface and buoy observations, GPS radio occupation, upper-air observations from rawinsondes
and aircraft, scatterometer-based observations, and derived atmospheric motion vectors).
This paved the way for the establishment of an adaptively controlled operational observing system in Europe, with increased flexibility in the land-based rawinsonde
network plus in situ components such as Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) and rawinsondes
from merchant ships.
General atmospheric thermodynamic and dynamic structures were provided by rawinsondes
launched from Davidstow at 1-2-h intervals during IOPs and a collocated 1290-MHz radar wind profiler.
Instruments/platform Owner/operator/deployment Gill Solent Windmaster Pro 3D ARM/Lawrence Berkeley National sonic anemometer and Licor Laboratory/continuous Infrared Gas Analyzer/60-m tower and ECOR system * Vaisala HMP45D/60-m tower ARM/Argonne National Laboratory/ continuous Vaisala 50Y Humitter/ECOR system ARM/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/continuous AERI ARM/ARM/continuous Raman lidar ARM/ARM/continuous Vaisala RS92 rawinsondes
ARM/ARM/regularly every 6 h (0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 UTC) OU Metek sodar OU/P.
provide direct measurements of the atmospheric temperature and moisture, it is generally difficult to use the measurements for identifying surface-based ducts or evaporative ducts over the ocean because of ship or island contaminations unless an top-down sampling approach is adopted.