But in Leader's account, this biological reductivism
is more than unhelpful; it's become a symptom of the very malaise it claims to address.
(9) In its extreme iteration, this school practices "social" or "contextual reductivism
," (10) the belief that the fullness of social context accounts for all (or almost all) legal context and development--society proposes and law disposes.
However, in the course of its activities it indirectly contributed to a reductivism
of sorts, narrowing Burmese identity to Burman identity and defining the people as a Buddhist nation--at the expense of other minority groups.
Reed--then a painter of landscapes--was blown away by the East Coast reductivism
into which he transformatively stepped.
(32.)See Andrew von Hirsch & Andrew Ashworth, Proportionate Sentencing: Exploring the Principles (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005) at 14-17 (for critiques of empirical evidence and concerns about treating offenders as moral agents); RA Duff & David Garland, eds, A Reader on Punishment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994) at 6-16 (for a review of the decline of consequentialism); N Walker, "Reductivism
and Deterrence" in Duff & Garland (ibid at 212) (for a defence of consequentialist theory).
It is in contradistinction to science as a 'body of knowledge' that we can distinguish philosophy as the Adornian opening to critical, self-reflective truth without falling prey to this reductivism
; that in the critique of neuroscience as the expression of a particular 'scientism' of our age, and idealism as its twin-like opposite we can activate the Adornian image of methodology.
To avoid reductivism
and prescriptivism, integral rationalism must primarily be an articulation of the inter- and intra-cultural polemics in all their defining and specific detail.
Roger Lancaster has carefully documented essentialist narratives as a form of biological reductivism
that operate as an "ideological fixation" of gender and sexual identity (which we know to be socially constructed) as if they were preprogrammed in the human mind and body.
This seems to me to re-establish the historical context of 1970 as an outer limit of interpretative possibility; its strategic reductivism
neither adequately encompasses Mary Wollstonecraft nor more recent readings of the poem, and so has a limited utility to graduate students, on the one hand, and to professional Miltonists, on the other.
Carroll shows that admirable efforts to retain the reality of Life and still salvage materialism by distinguishing between "methodological" and "ontological" reductivism
turn out to be contradictory.
In their entirety, these figures run against the grain of a certain reductivism
in Pasolini's ventures beyond Italian shores and in critical response to them.
Do I get irritated, even angry, when bland reductivism
and pernicious literalism creeps in an approach that is supposedly based on sophisticated philosophical insights?