In her chapter on Delarivier Manley's scandalous chronicles of the early-eighteenth century, Gallagher marshalls an impressive array of cultural forces -- uncertainty regarding monarchical succession, partisan politics, the rise of civil humanism with an accompanying emphasis on the private sphere and on "feminized" modes of discourse, the lapse of the Licensing Act, anxiety about the inflationary tendencies of both paper property and language -- to arrive at a reading of Manley's The New Atalantis in which female sexuality is removed from the realm of referentiality
altogether, removed to the realm of nothingness, or fiction, in the very process of elaborating its allegorical referentiality
She goes beyond this earlier generation in suggesting that the intricate patterns of arrangement to be found in poems such as The Faerie Queene (a text which has proved enormously fruitful for this approach) constitute a deliberate referentiality
in themselves, as Spenser echoes Tasso and Augustine as well as the Bible in his organizational structures.
The principal of referentiality
thus frames the stanza, but there is a withholding strategy at work here too.
Personally I find this persuasive, although certain ageing young Turks of criticism may find objections, attempting instead to complicate and negate the situatedness and referentiality
of the text, all familiar strategies (and forms of irrealism).
Sir Alexander, then, labors, as James himself did, to produce the conditions under which referentiality
and thus the social order would be stable and under which the very reasons for producing counterfeit coins would cease to exist -- the po wer of an authority figure to "compel outward signs to reflect inner truth." (28) In other words, he tries to produce a comedy (or at least write its "induction"), ironically, by circulating a counterfeit coin.
to the Present (1905), which Kafka did read; and he regards Julius Dittmar's travelogues A Journey Around the World (1911) and In New China (1912) as 'indispensable for a reconstruction of the referentiality
of Kafka's texts' (p.
In the final chapter he applies the result of his analysis to explore the referentiality
of biblical language in the quest for the historical Jesus.
The influence of critical theory and in particular of deconstruction has been to subvert the very possibility of autobiography as a form, since the concept of selfhood on which it depends, and the referentiality
of the language it must use, have both been subject to theoretical questioning.
Perhaps the best way to describe the new paintings would be to say that they employ imagistic fragments with an improvisational liberty--a heady sense that anything can happen--that feels like a kind of abstraction by default, although there is no shying away from referentiality
. Take Black Dress (all works 2016), my favorite piece in this show: It's a mostly black, white, and yellow concatenation of elastic forms that very quickly read, from right to left, as a triad of variations on a single form or figure.
Surely this would be a disabling reading of any poem: however fruitful the exploration of enriching intertexts, if they dominate the critic's view of a poem's landscape to the detriment of referentiality
, something has gone seriously askew.
of the music was not to the real architecture of the Cathedral, with which it had nothing to do specifically, but to the imaginary Solomonic architecture (and related numerological sets) that was the universal model for all church construction.
Having lived in the eighth for a year myself, I did not really find Reda's musings about its borders especially enlightening in any referential sense, except for a satire of the very idea of "natural borders." But referentiality
is of course beside the point, for Reda is offering a sustained performance showing how the mind can entertain itself with specious distinctions.