This was a frequent Regalist
demand, a means to constrain the Papacy and exert state power: the historian Gabriel Paquette has pointed out Regalism's centrality to much thought and policy in eighteenth-century Spain, which habitually invoked the precedent of the Councils of Toledo (57, 78-80).
Similarly, the belief that the Society represented Roman intrusion in the affairs of national churches clearly played a role, not least in the regalist
Spain of Charles III (r.
By the reign of Charles IV (1788-1808), regalist
ministers would take political authority over Spanish Catholicism to its furthest extent by granting bishops full faculty of authority in the last days of the 18th century.
The author shows this phenomenon by analyzing the brief yet ascendant career of one of the most aggressive proponents of the regalist
programs, Fryderyk Jagiellon (1468-1503): the youngest son of the Jagiellonian monarchs, King Kazimierz IV and Queen Elizabeth Habsburg, brother of the rulers of Poland, Lithuania, Hungary, and Bohemia, brother-in-law to five electors and princes of the Holy Roman Empire, Bishop of Cracow (then the Polish capital), primate, senator, and regent of Poland, and cardinal of the Roman Church.
Montufar, along with the bishop of Michoacan, the highly regalist
former lawyer Vasco de Quiroga, promoted a Tridentine reform of the Mexican Church parallel to efforts in Spain.
Long ago Sorel observed that the Braganza and Bourbon drive against the Jesuits from the 1750s to the 1770s was one of the rare instances of a shared regalist
campaign in Europe informed by a similar set of suspicions leading to the first suppression of the Society by Clement XIV in 1773.
It upheld a rigorous regalist
view concerning the Church in Portugal.
The controversy embraced a variety of positions, hierocratic and anti-hierocratic, imperialist and regalist
, advanced by a series of writers of the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries: Jordanus of Osnabruck and Alexander of Roes; Thomas Aquinas and Tolomeo of Lucca, with the latter's assimilation of the Roman Republic into the history of the Empire bequeathed by Constantine to the Popes; Egidio Romano (Giles of Rome) and Boniface VIII's Bull Unam sanctam of November 1302; John of Paris; Dante's own friend, the jurist Cino of Pistoia; Engelbert of Admont; slightly later, Marsilio of Padua.
One context of Taylor's study is the effect on colonial Mexican parishes of the royal administrative changes known as the Bourbon Reforms, in particular the impact at the rural parish level of regalist
tendencies, which accelerated the process of parish secularization, encouraged anticlericalism, and exacerbated conflicts over clerical fees.
However, Smidt draws attention to the fact that Spanish Jansenism and regalist
reform of the Church overshadowed the matters of religious reform because they did not correspond with the aims of the state (437-39).
A close associate of Esquilache, a staunch regalist
, he also was a whistle-blower of government corruption and unrepentant critic of the venality of his colleagues.
Ward demonstrate, Jansenists allied with regalists
and enlighteners to implement political and educational reforms that were often anti-papal and anti-Jesuitical in nature.