A realist/idealist dialectic represents a critical criminology of both the present and future, which embraces reintegrative
, restorative, rehabilitative, emancipatory, transformative, and harm reduction policies and practices in its approach towards criminal justice rather than the punitive, exclusionary, and reactionary ones that typically dominate the modern world.
Shaming, Shame and Recidivism: A Test of Reintegrative
Shaming Theory in the White-Collar Crime Context', 2007, British Journal of Criminology, vol.
197) The panel is required to consider the following elements of damages: (1) economic damages, including attorneys' fees, lost wages, and costs of criminal defense; (2) reimbursement for medical and dental expenses already incurred and future unpaid expenses causally related to the wrongful imprisonment; (3) non-economic damages; (4) tuition benefits; (5) reimbursement for paid or unpaid child support payments; and (6) reimbursement for paid or unpaid reintegrative
As opposed to punishments, research demonstrates that compliance is predicted by "efficacy-building strategies," such as praise by regulatory agents, trust building, reintegrative
shaming, and skill-building for managers and supervisors (Braithwaite et al.
strategies included (1) measures to support families, including assistance for single parents to get off benefits and return to work; (2) policies to help children achieve at school, including steps to tackle truancy and prevent exclusions; (3) the provision of opportunities for jobs, training, and leisure; and (4) action to tackle drug misuse (Hopkins Burke, 1999, 2008).
So while Santiago depended on memory as a preliminary reintegrative
step and as a constant motivation during his transition, returning to Chile has allowed him to revise erroneous memories.
In the program of reintegrative
shaming that is widely used in juvenile criminal treatment (Braithwaite, 1989), shaming is used as a technique for preventing recidivism.
rehabilitation, at least in a reintegrative
sense: banishment is for
Deeper dimensions of the nature of reintegrative
shame have broader ramifications.
shaming theory, moral emotions and bullying.
Making and maintaining acquaintances, discussing experiences and thoughts with other people, and becoming more skilled at social interaction, are all elements of offender-public relationships that have significant reintegrative
Within the program, there is a commitment to the ideal that rehabilitative and reintegrative
efforts create attitudinal and behavioral changes in the offender that reduce risk for future offending and promote public safety.