Second, the relative pronoun
simultaneously plays three roles: (1) as subject or filler verb in the relative clause, (2) as conjunction between the main and relative clauses and (3) as anaphoric pronoun of the antecedent.
A fourth fact is related to the expression of the function of inter-clausal articulator for substantive clauses, expressed by the relative pronoun
(RP) in free relatives (without antecedent) in L, often corresponding to demonstrative with relative in Romance translations.
In Excerpt 1, with the shortened pause and lengthened "who," it generates a drive across the pause, suggesting that the verse line has not yet ended, that the phrase "On the faces of my live comrades" and the relative pronoun
"who" are one perceptual unit (even though the relative pronoun
is part of a new clause).
Here the relative pronoun
who refers to the noun student and begins the relative clause who prefers to study late at night.
In Dutch relative clauses, the relative pronoun
agrees with the antecedent in number, gender and animacy, but not in the feature R: compare het boek waarover we spraken "the book where-of we spoke " [het boek is [+neuter, +singular, -animate, -R], waar is [+neuter, +singular, -animate, +R].
Nonetheless, it is important to realize that--for all the current uncertainty --there was near-unanimous consent, lasting almost six centuries, to the notion that the relative pronoun
cui in this verse was an accusative and that it referred to the protagonist's guide, Virgil.
Think of Kurt Cobain defining a generation by using the indefinite relative pronoun
"whatever" in Smells Like Teen Spirit.
Onions's interpretation of alod in line 56 as the adjective 'wasted, dissipated, destroyed' (deriving its meaning from ON afloga 'worn out, useless' and its form from ON afloa 'weatherworn, worn thin') (2) seems to have gained general acceptance, (3) despite the fact that the word thus glossed is a hapax legomenon, (4) and that it entails an awkward ellipsis of the relative pronoun
(an "asyndetic relative clause") and "the northern syntax of is":
Finally there are instances of relative pronoun
"what" and conditional "if" used as cohesive ties in the surah.
In (1), the head noun and the relative pronoun
are marked for the same case.
e) Relative pronoun
as (for standard who, which, that):