Very low-level is not a formal designation and does not have a statutory or regulatory definition, but is generally understood to contain small amounts of residual radioactivity
, according to the NRC.
Using the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant disaster in Ukraine as a case study, this volume describes the assessment of groundwater vulnerability and an improved methodology based on integration of the methods of hydrogeological zonation and modeling of anomalously fast migration of radioactive contaminants from the land surface toward groundwater, to aid in evaluating groundwater vulnerability and conducting risk assessments for groundwater contamination from diverse sources, as well as selecting optimal remediation methods for reducing threats from residual radioactivity
. It considers the results of long-term field and modeling investigations of radionuclide transport in soil and groundwater in the Ukrainian part of the Dnieper River basin.
Naturally irradiated green diamonds and those that have been treated by modern methods (such as electron irradiation) reveal no residual radioactivity
. However, diamonds that have been embedded in radium salts are commonly radioactive and may present a considerable safety hazard.
Even today, some wildlife and livestock as far away as Germany and Norway are contaminated with high levels of radiation due to the residual radioactivity
in the plants they eat.
After centrifugation to precipitate immunoglobulin, the supernatant was discarded and residual radioactivity
in the immunoglobulin pellet was measured.
A few representative examples of individual topics include measures of network vulnerability indicators for risk evaluation and exposure reduction, dioxin emission estimates and reduction options for Central and Eastern Europe, human exposure of methyl mercury through fish consumption, microbiological risk in operating rooms, residual radioactivity
from the treatment of water for urban domestic applications, long-term and low-thermal biologic effects of microwaves, environmental pollutants and human diseases, and impact assessment and public outreach strategies of local governments.
For lot III (24-hr experiment) urine and feces were also collected and metabolic cages were washed with 100 mL ethanol from which aliquots were taken for residual radioactivity
The cuvette was removed and residual radioactivity
- It is important to achieve a common set of rules at EU level for the clearance for the large quantifies of declared radioactive waste that will eventually exhibit very low levels of residual radioactivity
. The present situation, where some countries have clearance levels and others do not, with the resulting implications for the release and circulation of the material within the market, is not satisfactory.
The NRC has recently undertaken a process to revise residual radioactivity
requirements which will determine the level of cleanup necessary for terminating a license.
"The inner containers would contain residual radioactivity
that remains after flushing them." The potential for accidents or public exposure to the wastes "are extremely low," said the DOE.