(redirected from restricted affect)
Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.
Related to restricted affect: Labile affect, flattened affect, constricted affect


to pretend; influence: It will affect the outcome.
Not to be confused with:
effect – a result; an influence: His protest had no effect. [The words affect and effect are among the most frequently confused words. Affect means to bring about a change, to move emotionally, or to infect, as a disease. Its core meaning is to evoke a usually strong mental or emotional response from. Effect means consequence, outcome, upshot. Its core meaning is something brought about by a cause.]
Abused, Confused, & Misused Words by Mary Embree Copyright © 2007, 2013 by Mary Embree

af·fect 1

tr.v. af·fect·ed, af·fect·ing, af·fects
1. To have an influence on or effect a change in: Inflation affects the buying power of the dollar.
2. To act on the emotions of; touch or move. See Synonyms at move.
3. To attack or infect, as a disease: Rheumatic fever can affect the heart.
n. (ăf′ĕkt′)
1. Feeling or emotion, especially as manifested by facial expression or body language: "The soldiers seen on television had been carefully chosen for blandness of affect" (Norman Mailer).
2. Obsolete A disposition, feeling, or tendency.

[Middle English affecten, from Latin afficere, affect-, to do to, act on : ad-, ad- + facere, to do; see dhē- in Indo-European roots.]
Usage Note: Affect and effect are often confused because they sound alike and have related meanings. First, bear in mind that there are two words spelled affect. One means "to put on a false show of," as in She affected a British accent. The other affect, the one that is confused with effect, is both a noun and a verb. As a noun it is uncommon and means roughly "emotion." It is pronounced with stress on the first syllable rather than the second. Note that affect does not have a noun sense meaning "an influence that brings about a change." As a verb, affect is most commonly used in the sense of "to cause a change in:" the ways in which smoking affects health. The verb effect means "to bring about or execute": medical treatment designed to effect a cure. Its corresponding noun means "a result." Thus if someone affects something, there is likely to be an effect of some kind, and from this may arise some of the confusion. People who stop smoking will see beneficial health effects, but not beneficial health affects. The verbs produce important differences in meaning. The sentence These measures have been designed to effect savings implies that the measures will cause new savings to come about. Using affect in the very similar sentence These measures will affect savings implies that the measures will cause a change in savings that have already been realized.

af·fect 2

tr.v. af·fect·ed, af·fect·ing, af·fects
1. To put on a false show of; simulate: affected a British accent.
a. To have or show a liking for: affects dramatic clothes.
b. Archaic To fancy; love.
3. To tend to by nature; tend to assume: a substance that affects crystalline form.
4. To imitate; copy: "Spenser, in affecting the ancients, writ no language" (Ben Jonson).

[Middle English affecten, from Latin affectāre, to strive after, frequentative of afficere, affect-, to affect, influence; see affect1.]

af·fect′er n.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


vb (tr)
1. to act upon or influence, esp in an adverse way: damp affected the sparking plugs.
2. to move or disturb emotionally or mentally: her death affected him greatly.
3. (Medicine) (of pain, disease, etc) to attack
(Psychology) psychol the emotion associated with an idea or set of ideas. See also affection
[C17: from Latin affectus, past participle of afficere to act upon, from ad- to + facere to do]


vb (mainly tr)
1. to put on an appearance or show of; make a pretence of: to affect ignorance.
2. to imitate or assume, esp pretentiously: to affect an accent.
3. to have or use by preference: she always affects funereal clothing.
4. to adopt the character, manner, etc, of: he was always affecting the politician.
5. (Biology) (of plants or animals) to live or grow in: penguins affect an arctic climate.
6. to incline naturally or habitually towards: falling drops of liquid affect roundness.
[C15: from Latin affectāre to strive after, pretend to have; related to afficere to affect1]
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014


(v. əˈfɛkt; n. ˈæf ɛkt)

1. to produce an effect or change in: Cold weather affected the crops.
2. to impress the mind or move the feelings of: The music affected him deeply.
3. (of pain, disease, etc.) to attack or lay hold of.
4. feeling or emotion.
5. Psychiatry. an expressed or observed emotional response.
6. Obs. inward disposition or feeling.
[1350–1400; Middle English, < Latin affectus]
af•fect′a•ble, adj.
af•fect`a•bil′i•ty, n.
usage: Because of similarity in pronunciation, affect and effect are sometimes confused in writing. The spelling affect is used of two different words. The verb affect1 means “to act on” or “to move” (His words affected the crowd so deeply that many wept); the noun affect1, pronounced with the stress on the first syllable, refers to emotion or, in psychiatry, emotional response. affect2 is not used as a noun; as a verb it means “to pretend” or “to assume” (new students affecting a nonchalance they didn't feel). The verb effect means “to bring about, accomplish”: Her administration effected radical changes. The noun effect means “result, consequence”: the serious effects of the oil spill.



1. to pretend or feign: to affect knowledge of history.
2. to assume artificially, pretentiously, or for effect: to affect a British accent.
3. to use, wear, or adopt by preference: to affect an outrageous costume.
4. to assume the character or attitude of: to affect the freethinker.
5. (of substances) to tend toward habitually or naturally: to affect colloidal form.
6. Archaic.
a. to have affection for.
b. to aspire to.
7. Obs. to incline: She affects to the old ways.
[1400–50; late Middle English < Middle French affecter < Latin affectāre]
af•fect′•er, n.
syn: See pretend.
usage: See affect1.
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. 'affect'

Affect /ə'fekt/ is a verb. To affect someone or something means to cause them to change, often in a negative way.

There are many ways in which computers can affect our lives.
The disease affected Jane's lungs.
2. 'effect'

Effect /ɪ'fekt/ is usually a noun. An effect is something that happens or exists because something else has happened.

The report shows the effect of noise on people in the factories.
This has the effect of separating students from teachers.

You can say that something has a particular effect on something else.

Improvement in water supply can have a dramatic effect on health.
These changes will have a significant effect on our business.

Effect is sometimes a verb. If you effect something that you are trying to achieve, you succeed in achieving it. This is a formal use.

The new law will give us the power to effect change.


1. 'touch'

If you touch something, you gently put your fingers or hand on it.

The metal is so hot I can't touch it.
Madeleine stretched out her hand to touch his.

If you are touched by something, it makes you feel sad, sympathetic, or grateful.

I was touched that he should remember the party where he had kissed me for the first time.
I was touched by his thoughtfulness.
2. 'affect'

You do not use 'touch' to say that something changes or influences a person or thing. You do not say, for example, 'We wanted to know how these proposals would touch our town'. The word you use is affect.

...the ways in which computers can affect our lives.
The disease affected Jane's lungs.
Collins COBUILD English Usage © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 2004, 2011, 2012


Past participle: affected
Gerund: affecting

I affect
you affect
he/she/it affects
we affect
you affect
they affect
I affected
you affected
he/she/it affected
we affected
you affected
they affected
Present Continuous
I am affecting
you are affecting
he/she/it is affecting
we are affecting
you are affecting
they are affecting
Present Perfect
I have affected
you have affected
he/she/it has affected
we have affected
you have affected
they have affected
Past Continuous
I was affecting
you were affecting
he/she/it was affecting
we were affecting
you were affecting
they were affecting
Past Perfect
I had affected
you had affected
he/she/it had affected
we had affected
you had affected
they had affected
I will affect
you will affect
he/she/it will affect
we will affect
you will affect
they will affect
Future Perfect
I will have affected
you will have affected
he/she/it will have affected
we will have affected
you will have affected
they will have affected
Future Continuous
I will be affecting
you will be affecting
he/she/it will be affecting
we will be affecting
you will be affecting
they will be affecting
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been affecting
you have been affecting
he/she/it has been affecting
we have been affecting
you have been affecting
they have been affecting
Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been affecting
you will have been affecting
he/she/it will have been affecting
we will have been affecting
you will have been affecting
they will have been affecting
Past Perfect Continuous
I had been affecting
you had been affecting
he/she/it had been affecting
we had been affecting
you had been affecting
they had been affecting
I would affect
you would affect
he/she/it would affect
we would affect
you would affect
they would affect
Past Conditional
I would have affected
you would have affected
he/she/it would have affected
we would have affected
you would have affected
they would have affected
Collins English Verb Tables © HarperCollins Publishers 2011
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.affect - the conscious subjective aspect of feeling or emotionaffect - the conscious subjective aspect of feeling or emotion
feeling - the experiencing of affective and emotional states; "she had a feeling of euphoria"; "he had terrible feelings of guilt"; "I disliked him and the feeling was mutual"
Verb1.affect - have an effect upon; "Will the new rules affect me?"
alter, change, modify - cause to change; make different; cause a transformation; "The advent of the automobile may have altered the growth pattern of the city"; "The discussion has changed my thinking about the issue"
strike a blow - affect adversely; "The court ruling struck a blow at the old segregation laws"
repercuss - cause repercussions; have an unwanted effect
tell on - produce an effect or strain on somebody; "Each step told on his tired legs"
redound - have an effect for good or ill; "Her efforts will redound to the general good"
stimulate, excite - act as a stimulant; "The book stimulated her imagination"; "This play stimulates"
process, treat - subject to a process or treatment, with the aim of readying for some purpose, improving, or remedying a condition; "process cheese"; "process hair"; "treat the water so it can be drunk"; "treat the lawn with chemicals" ; "treat an oil spill"
hydrolise, hydrolize - make a compound react with water and undergo hydrolysis
tinge, color, colour, distort - affect as in thought or feeling; "My personal feelings color my judgment in this case"; "The sadness tinged his life"
endanger, peril, scupper, expose - put in a dangerous, disadvantageous, or difficult position
hit, strike - affect or afflict suddenly, usually adversely; "We were hit by really bad weather"; "He was stricken with cancer when he was still a teenager"; "The earthquake struck at midnight"
subject - cause to experience or suffer or make liable or vulnerable to; "He subjected me to his awful poetry"; "The sergeant subjected the new recruits to many drills"; "People in Chernobyl were subjected to radiation"
discommode, disoblige, incommode, inconvenience, put out, trouble, bother - to cause inconvenience or discomfort to; "Sorry to trouble you, but..."
act upon, influence, work - have and exert influence or effect; "The artist's work influenced the young painter"; "She worked on her friends to support the political candidate"
slam-dunk - make a forceful move against; "the electronic travel market is slam-dunking traditional travel agencies"
2.affect - act physically on; have an effect upon; "the medicine affects my heart rate"
attack - begin to injure; "The cancer cells are attacking his liver"; "Rust is attacking the metal"
ulcerate - affect with an ulcer; "Her stomach was ulcerated"
sedate, tranquilize, tranquillise, tranquillize, calm - cause to be calm or quiet as by administering a sedative to; "The patient must be sedated before the operation"
energize, perk up, energise, stimulate, arouse, brace - cause to be alert and energetic; "Coffee and tea stimulate me"; "This herbal infusion doesn't stimulate"
tense up, tense, strain - cause to be tense and uneasy or nervous or anxious; "he got a phone call from his lawyer that tensed him up"
make relaxed, unlax, unstrain, unwind, relax, loosen up - cause to feel relaxed; "A hot bath always relaxes me"
cramp - affect with or as if with a cramp
jaundice - affect with, or as if with, jaundice
alter, change, modify - cause to change; make different; cause a transformation; "The advent of the automobile may have altered the growth pattern of the city"; "The discussion has changed my thinking about the issue"
register - enter into someone's consciousness; "Did this event register in your parents' minds?"
inebriate, intoxicate, soak - make drunk (with alcoholic drinks)
3.affect - connect closely and often incriminatingly; "This new ruling affects your business"
concern, have to do with, pertain, bear on, come to, touch on, refer, relate, touch - be relevant to; "There were lots of questions referring to her talk"; "My remark pertained to your earlier comments"
implicate - bring into intimate and incriminating connection; "He is implicated in the scheme to defraud the government"
4.affect - make believe with the intent to deceive; "He feigned that he was ill"; "He shammed a headache"
misrepresent, belie - represent falsely; "This statement misrepresents my intentions"
make believe, pretend, make - represent fictitiously, as in a play, or pretend to be or act like; "She makes like an actress"
play possum - to pretend to be dead
take a dive - pretend to be knocked out, as of a boxer
talk through one's hat, bull, fake - speak insincerely or without regard for facts or truths; "The politician was not well prepared for the debate and faked it"
mouth - articulate silently; form words with the lips only; "She mouthed a swear word"
5.affect - have an emotional or cognitive impact uponaffect - have an emotional or cognitive impact upon; "This child impressed me as unusually mature"; "This behavior struck me as odd"
infect - affect in a contagious way; "His laughter infects everyone who is in the same room"
surprise - cause to be surprised; "The news really surprised me"
ingrain, instill, impress - produce or try to produce a vivid impression of; "Mother tried to ingrain respect for our elders in us"
awaken - make aware; "They were awakened to the sad facts"
incite, motivate, prompt, propel, actuate, move - give an incentive for action; "This moved me to sacrifice my career"
engrave - impress or affect deeply; "The event engraved itself into her memory"
strike dumb - render speechless, as by surprising or shocking; "we were struck dumb by the candidate's announcement"
zap - strike suddenly and with force; "This show zaps the viewers with some shocking scenes"
jar - affect in a disagreeable way; "This play jarred the audience"
hit home, strike a note, strike home, strike a chord - refer to or be relevant or familiar to; "I hope this message hits home!"
smite - affect suddenly with deep feeling; "He was smitten with love for this young girl"
cloud - make gloomy or depressed; "Their faces were clouded with sadness"
pierce - move or affect (a person's emotions or bodily feelings) deeply or sharply; "The cold pierced her bones"; "Her words pierced the students"
impress - impress positively; "The young chess player impressed her audience"
sweep off, sweep away - overwhelm emotionally; "Her swept her away"
disturb, trouble, upset - move deeply; "This book upset me"; "A troubling thought"
touch, stir - affect emotionally; "A stirring movie"; "I was touched by your kind letter of sympathy"
move - arouse sympathy or compassion in; "Her fate moved us all"
sadden - make unhappy; "The news of her death saddened me"
alienate - make withdrawn or isolated or emotionally dissociated; "the boring work alienated his employees"
come to, hit, strike - cause to experience suddenly; "Panic struck me"; "An interesting idea hit her"; "A thought came to me"; "The thought struck terror in our minds"; "They were struck with fear"
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.


1. influence, involve, concern, impact, transform, alter, modify, change, manipulate, act on, sway, prevail over, bear upon, impinge upon Millions of people have been affected by the drought.
2. emotionally move, touch, upset, overcome, stir, disturb, perturb, impress on, tug at your heartstrings (often facetious) He loved his sister, and her loss clearly still affects him. see effect


verb put on, assume, adopt, pretend, imitate, simulate, contrive, aspire to, sham, counterfeit, feign He listened to them, affecting an amused interest.
Collins Thesaurus of the English Language – Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. 2002 © HarperCollins Publishers 1995, 2002

affect 1

To evoke a usually strong mental or emotional response from:

affect 2

To take on or give a false appearance of:
Idiom: make believe.
The American Heritage® Roget's Thesaurus. Copyright © 2013, 2014 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
يُؤَثِّر عَلَىيُؤَثِّر فِي المَشَاعِريُؤثِر
hafa áhrif á, orka ásnerta
영향을 미치다
tác động


1. (= have effect on) → afectar, influir en
it did not affect my decisionno influyó en mi decisión
2. (= concern) → afectar, tener que ver con
this will affect everybodyesto afectará a todos
3. (= harm) → perjudicar
4. (Med) a wound affecting the right leguna herida que afecta a la pierna derecha
his whole left side was affectedtenía todo el costado izquierdo afectado
5. (= move emotionally) → conmover, afectar
he seemed much affectedparecía muy conmovido or afectado
6. (= feign) he affected indifferenceafectó or aparentó indiferencia, fingió ser indiferente
she affected to cryella fingió llorar
7. (archaic or frm) (= like) she affects bright coloursa ella le gustan los colores claros
B. N (Psych) → afecto m, estado m afectivo
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005


[əˈfɛkt] vt
(= influence, have an effect on) [+ person, life] → affecter, toucher; [+ outcome, result] → influencer, avoir des répercussions sur; [+ ability, performance] → affecter, avoir des répercussions sur; [disease] [+ heart, lungs, liver] → affecter, toucher
(= feign) [+ interest, concern] → feindre
Collins English/French Electronic Resource. © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


(= have effect on)sich auswirken auf (+acc); decision, sb’s lifebeeinflussen, sich auswirken auf (+acc); (detrimentally) nerves, materialangreifen; health, personschaden (+dat)
(= concern)betreffen
(emotionally: = move) → berühren, treffen; he was obviously affected by the newsdie Nachricht hatte ihn sichtlich mitgenommen
(diseases: = attack) → befallen


(= feign) indifferencevortäuschen, vorgeben; accentsich befleißigen (+gen) (geh)
(liter, = like to use etc) clothes, colourseine Vorliebe or Schwäche haben für
Collins German Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged 7th Edition 2005. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1980 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1997, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2007


[əˈfɛkt] vt
a. (have an effect on) → influire su, incidere su; (concern) → riguardare, concernere; (harm, health) → danneggiare
it did not affect my decision → non ha influenzato la mia decisione, non ha influito sulla mia decisione
b. (move emotionally) → colpire, toccare
he seemed much affected → sembrava molto colpito
c. (feign) → fingere
Collins Italian Dictionary 1st Edition © HarperCollins Publishers 1995


(əˈfekt) verb
1. to act or have an effect on. Rain affects the grass; His kidneys have been affected by the disease.
2. to move the feelings of. She was deeply affected by the news of his death.
Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary © 2006-2013 K Dictionaries Ltd.


يُؤثِر působit påvirke betreffen επηρεάζω afectar vaikuttaa affecter utjecati influire 影響を与える 영향을 미치다 beïnvloeden påvirke wpłynąć afetar воздействовать påverka กระทบ etkilemek tác động 影响
Multilingual Translator © HarperCollins Publishers 2009


v. afectar, causar un cambio en la salud; conmover, excitar.
English-Spanish Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012


n (psych) afecto; blunted — afecto embotado; flat — afecto aplanado; vt afectar; affected by..afectado por
English-Spanish/Spanish-English Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The negative symptoms were characteristic of psychosis as the patient did not express low mood but had restricted affect. In our case, negative symptoms could be due to cerebellar involvement which is found to cause cognitive deficit, disorganized speech, abnormal or catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms such as avolition, flat affect, and anhedonia in schizophrenia.

Full browser ?