It does mean that predictions become retrodictions
and that a long time may pass between the proposal of a theory and the availability of data to check its retrodictions
(93) In this context, then, to regard empiricism or rationalism as being inherently better than the other is meaningless.
1989: Geological constraints and biological retrodictions
in the evolution of the Caribbean Sea and its islands.
In contrast, retrodictions speak about singular or plural events in history that must be formalized by "transformations" that comply with a number of evolutionary axioms  and interface with a framework of maximization of explanatory power .
It was Willi Hennig in the fifties who first formalized retrodiction in quantitative terms .
Mathematical astronomers were used to making predictions--not retrodictions
. Thanks to Kepler, they could easily predict a planet's motion given the elements of its elliptical orbit.
the structural-causal prediction is doomed, in principle, to fail (by failure of the prediction we understand not mere unacceptable deviations of what was predicted from the actual measurements at the end of the time horizon, but an unacceptable deviation from the veridicity (47) of the economic process); as shown before, the prediction of the economic process must be, in principle, normative, actually requiring retrodictions for the time horizon "future-present", and not predictions for the time horizon "past-present-future";
Hence, as we will subsequently show, logically speaking, in the economic process we have some kind of retrodictions (retrodictions obtained not by the simple reversal of the algebraic sign of time from the analytic of the reversible laws of process movement, but by target setting.
We can make retrodictions
about what should have happened, if our hypotheses are correct.
And that can lead, and historically has led, to as many wrong turns as overreliance on successful retrodictions
Finally, note that given the foregoing conditions a theory's U-statements plus facts about initial conditions would have entailed novel true O-statement predictions and retrodictions
For instance, for us it is obvious that in economy we do not have actual predictions, but rather retrodictions
from the future towards the present.