There are features like Rhoticity
(quality of being rhotics: variant phonemes related to /r/ are called rhotics), Lateralization, and Roundedness which bear extra long duration.
'A Socio-Articulatory Study of Scottish Rhoticity
Salbrina Sharbawi and David Deterding 2010 Rhoticity
in Brunei English.
Another concern with vowels involves rhoticity
, and we need to be able to devise a model which accounts for both rhotic and non-rhotic accents.
One of the characteristics that is generally considered as typical of North American English is rhoticity
, that is, the use of the phoneme /r/ in syllabic codas in words such as "car", "beer" and "more".
Scholars from Europe, Africa, and Malaysia describe the acquisition of English vowels and consonants and their distribution in syllables and the acquisition of English prosody, discussing rhoticity
in Brunei English and Malaysian English, the acquisition of voice onset time, the vowel perception of Polish children who moved to Ireland, the realization of English loanwords in Bangla (Bengali), the production of onset clusters by Nigerian speakers of English, the acquisition of speech rhythm in German and Mandarin Chinese speakers of English, the perception and production of stress placement in English, and prosodic strategies of marking focus and givenness in South African English.
The right hook [[??]] is the accepted symbol for rhoticity
. While retroflex [[??]] and [[??]] are rhotic vowels, most rhotic articulations are not retroflex.
In the speech of university-educated TC, who has had less exposure than PC to RP in adulthood, we found consistent rhoticity
, no TRAP vowel, but contrasts in wordlists between cot/caught, knot/nought (or nought).
Full or variable rhoticity
with final or preconsonantal /r/ realised as the retroflex colouring of vowels occurs throughout southwestern England, according to the LAE.
(2000a) report that the loss of rhoticity
in NZE may also be motivated by inherent tendencies involved in linguistic drift (see note 14).
Though historical evidence supports this usage in non-rhotic (and standard) speech following the loss of rhoticity
in final and post-vocalic position (whereby intrusive /r/ comes to operate as a sandhi mechanism analogous to that of linking /r/),(16) Burchfield remains categorical in its exclusion.
But in the 1500s the southeastern-based forerunner of RP was not non-rhotic, because loss of rhoticity
did not occur in English until the 1700s.