A dual chamber pacemaker has two leads: one is implanted on the right atrium
and other on the right ventricle, hence mimicking normal physiological cardiac conduction.6 The advent of steroid eluting leads have led to improved stimulation thresholds and performance.3,8,9 The pacing leads can be implanted via transvenous (endocardial) or surgical (epicardial) route.
The guidelines about optimal position of central catheters suggest leaving the tip of the catheters in the right atrium
. The permanent HD catheter could be inserted into the internal jugular, subclavian, femoral veins and the inferior vena cava.
The multipurpose catheter was advanced to the right atrium
It showed bleeding point from the superior vena cava area, near the right atrium
. Then, the patient received urgent cardiac surgery immediately.
About 75% of them are located in the left atrium and 15% to 20% in the right atrium
. Most originate in the interatrial septum in the proximity of the fossa ovalis.
An isoechoic thrombus was noted at IVC near its confluence with the right atrium
. A Contrast enhanced computed tomography(CECT) of the abdomen was suggestive of hepatomegaly with liver abscesses, one measuring 93x78x87 mm in the right lobe of liver in the sub diaphragmatic region with no peripheral appreciable liver parenchyma at places and another ill-defined peripherally enhancing lesion sized 62x46x59 mm seen in the segment IV of the liver.
Caption: Left: An ASD allows blood to flow from the left atrium into the right atrium
, rather than the left ventricle.
The wire was snared within the right atrium
using a 6 F tri-lobed snare (EN Snare, Merit Medical Systems) from the existing right jugular sheath, achieving single access liver floss (Fig.
It demonstrated a 40 mm x 57 mm, large solid, fixed mass with smooth contours occupying most of the dilated right atrium
The right atrium
was exposed via a right midaxillary line incision at the fourth intercostal space level.
Because of his chest pain and associated signs, the patient underwent a computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest with intravenous contrast, which revealed a very large pericardial effusion, compressing the right and left ventricles and the right atrium