roman àclef

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ro•man à clef

(Fr. rɔ mɑ na ˈklɛ)

n., pl. ro•mans à clef (Fr. rɔ mɑ̃ za ˈklɛ)
a novel that represents historical events and characters under the guise of fiction.
[1890–95; < French: literally, novel with a key]