roughen

(redirected from roughening)
Also found in: Thesaurus.

rough·en

 (rŭf′ən)
tr. & intr.v. rough·ened, rough·en·ing, rough·ens
To make or become rough.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

roughen

(ˈrʌfən)
vb
to make or become rough
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014

rough•en

(ˈrʌf ən)

v.t., v.i.
to make or become rough or rougher.
[1580–90]
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.

roughen


Past participle: roughened
Gerund: roughening

Imperative
roughen
roughen
Present
I roughen
you roughen
he/she/it roughens
we roughen
you roughen
they roughen
Preterite
I roughened
you roughened
he/she/it roughened
we roughened
you roughened
they roughened
Present Continuous
I am roughening
you are roughening
he/she/it is roughening
we are roughening
you are roughening
they are roughening
Present Perfect
I have roughened
you have roughened
he/she/it has roughened
we have roughened
you have roughened
they have roughened
Past Continuous
I was roughening
you were roughening
he/she/it was roughening
we were roughening
you were roughening
they were roughening
Past Perfect
I had roughened
you had roughened
he/she/it had roughened
we had roughened
you had roughened
they had roughened
Future
I will roughen
you will roughen
he/she/it will roughen
we will roughen
you will roughen
they will roughen
Future Perfect
I will have roughened
you will have roughened
he/she/it will have roughened
we will have roughened
you will have roughened
they will have roughened
Future Continuous
I will be roughening
you will be roughening
he/she/it will be roughening
we will be roughening
you will be roughening
they will be roughening
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been roughening
you have been roughening
he/she/it has been roughening
we have been roughening
you have been roughening
they have been roughening
Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been roughening
you will have been roughening
he/she/it will have been roughening
we will have been roughening
you will have been roughening
they will have been roughening
Past Perfect Continuous
I had been roughening
you had been roughening
he/she/it had been roughening
we had been roughening
you had been roughening
they had been roughening
Conditional
I would roughen
you would roughen
he/she/it would roughen
we would roughen
you would roughen
they would roughen
Past Conditional
I would have roughened
you would have roughened
he/she/it would have roughened
we would have roughened
you would have roughened
they would have roughened
Collins English Verb Tables © HarperCollins Publishers 2011
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Verb1.roughen - make rough or rougher; "roughen the surfaces so they will stick to each other"
change surface - undergo or cause to undergo a change in the surface
smooth, smoothen - make smooth or smoother, as if by rubbing; "smooth the surface of the wood"
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.
Translations
يُخَشِّن، يَجْعَل السَّطْح خَشِنا
rozbouřit sezhrubnout
blive rå
viharossá válik
ÿfa
rozbúriť sa
pürüzlen mek

roughen

[ˈrʌfn]
A. VT [+ skin] → poner áspero, dejar áspero; [+ surface] → raspar (Carpentry) → desbastar
B. VI [skin] → ponerse áspero; [sea] → embravecerse; [voice] → volverse ronco, enronquecer
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005

roughen

[ˈrʌfən] vt
[+ surface, skin] → rendre rugueux/euse
[+ voice] → éraillerrough-hewn [ˌrʌfˈhjuːn] adj [wood, stone] → dégrossi(e)
a rough-hewn carving → l'ébauche d'une sculpturerough justice n (British)justice f sommaire
Collins English/French Electronic Resource. © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

roughen

vt grounduneben machen; skin, clothrau machen, rau werden lassen; surfaceaufrauen
vi
(skin)rau werden
(sound)hart werden; (voice)rau werden
(treatment)hart werden; (neighbourhood)verrohen; (sea, wind, weather)rau or stürmisch werden
Collins German Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged 7th Edition 2005. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1980 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1997, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2007

roughen

[ˈrʌfn] vt (a surface) → rendere ruvido/a, irruvidire
Collins Italian Dictionary 1st Edition © HarperCollins Publishers 1995

rough

(raf) adjective
1. not smooth. Her skin felt rough.
2. uneven. a rough path.
3. harsh; unpleasant. a rough voice; She's had a rough time since her husband died.
4. noisy and violent. rough behaviour.
5. stormy. The sea was rough; rough weather.
6. not complete or exact; approximate. a rough drawing; a rough idea/estimate.
noun
1. a violent bully. a gang of roughs.
2. uneven or uncultivated ground on a golf course. I lost my ball in the rough.
ˈroughly adverb
ˈroughness noun
ˈroughage (-fidʒ) noun
substances in food, eg bran or fibre, which help digestion.
ˈroughen verb
to make or become rough. The sea roughened as the wind rose.
rough diamond
a person of fine character but rough manners.
ˌrough-and-ˈready adjective
1. not carefully made or finished, but good enough. a rough-and-ready meal.
2. (of people) friendly enough but without politeness etc.
ˌrough-and-ˈtumble noun
friendly fighting between children etc.
rough it
to live for a period of time without the comforts or conveniences of modern life. They roughed it in the jungles for two months.
rough out
to draw or explain roughly. I roughed out a diagram; He roughed out his plan.
Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary © 2006-2013 K Dictionaries Ltd.
References in classic literature ?
"Why," he slowly replied, roughening his head more and more, "he is all sentiment, and--and susceptibility, and--and sensibility, and-- and imagination.
She glanced down in surprise at her own feet, and I observed the slight roughening of the side of the sole caused by the friction of the edge of the pedal.
In this in vitro study, it was concluded that the shear bond strength of sandblasted group on bonding stainless steel brackets to amalgam surface was significantly higher than that obtained with diamond bur roughening.
This indicates that the surface formation evolves from a dynamic smoothening process to a roughening growth, as will be further discussed in the following sections.
That chemistry is MEC EtchBOND CZ-2030, an elite organic acid-type chemistry that provides optimum copper surface roughening prior to dry film or solder-mask application.
His research and industry collaborative projects have led to new optical in situ monitoring devices to measure growth rate, layers thickness and roughening of the growing films.
Furthermore, mechanical roughening with fine and coarse diamond burs and sandblasting are reported to provoke crack initiation and propagation within the ceramic.
To optimize the adhesive pull strength of the coating, the aluminium cylinder bore surface is activated by roughening before the extremely thin (150 to 300 pm) and very hard metal layer is applied.
Supply of rollers surface roughening machine to be applied during sandblasting or aluminum oxide processes.
Several methods, including surface roughening techniques [2-5], inclined sidewall etching [6], patterned sapphire substrates [7, 8], and the incorporation of highly reflective omnidirectional reflectors (ODRs) [9], have been shown to effectively improve the light-extraction efficiency.