References in classic literature ?
The number of the caudal and sacral vertebrae vary; as does the number of the ribs, together with their relative breadth and the presence of processes.
Treatment of idiopathic overactive bladder often requires third-line therapy, which includes onabotulinumtoxinA, posterior tibial nerve stimulation, and sacral neuromodulation.
Sacral colpopexy, a surgical treatment for middle compartment defects, connects the uterus or the top of the vagina with the sacral anterior longitudinal ligament by bridging grafts.
The extent of SCI is categorized by the ASIA impairment scales in which A refers to a complete injury in which no sensory or motor function is preserved in sacral segments S4-S5, B denotes an incomplete injury in which sensory, but not motor, function is preserved below the neurologic level and extends through sacral segments S4-S5, C signifies an incomplete injury in which motor function is preserved below the neurologic level, and most key muscles below the neurologic level have muscle grade less than 3/5, D depicts an incomplete injury in which motor function is preserved below the neurologic level, and most key muscles below the neurologic level have muscle grade greater than or equal to 3/5, and E means that sensory and motor functions are normal4.
The variation may be attributed to the dependency of the final sacral morphology to the load-related fusion of the bony structures.
Contract notice: Supply of implants for neuromodulation of sacral roots.
This study is aimed to review the flap choices used to treat sacral pressure sores and the resulting acute complications rates retrospectively.
1] Rarely, bladder dysfunction with acute urinary retention is seen due to the involvement of sacral dermatomes.
A 2-year-old boy with a history of a complex anorectal malformation (ARM) consisting of a rectourethral fistula and a large anterior sacral meningocele was initially treated with a double-barrel colostomy at another institution.
M2 PHARMA-December 7, 2016-First Fecal Incontinence Patients Implanted with Axonics' Miniaturized Rechargeable Sacral Neuromodulation System
The sacrum is a large, triangular bone formed by the fusion of five sacral vertebrae.
11] reported first case of isolated sacral tuberculosis with lower back pain.