At first, Altschuld et al . observed that isolated rat cardiomyocytes were round-shaped and hypercontracture in response to SIR treatment; however, the membrane integrity of a sarcolemma
was preserved without extensive releases of enzymes and cytosolic components, which was different from the 'oxygen paradox' in situ . Siegmund et al.
A, B, C - Control preparations incubated with Tyrode solution (vehicle); A, shows the typical terminal bouton with synaptic vesicles (SV) polarized in front of the synaptic cleft and with mitochondria (M) positioned at the opposite site; B, shows detail of the post-synaptic junctional folds exhibiting the classical electron density of the sarcolemma
where acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are abutted (arrows); C, confirms the integrity of the AChRs labeled with TRITC-conjugated [alpha]-BTX.
These cells also exhibit nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation with lysis of the nucleolemma whereas the sarcolemma
remains intact until the cell is engulfed by local macrophages with avoidance of inflammation (James, 1994).
Increased CK is most likely due to greater sarcolemma
and sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane instability as a result of mechanical stress from the eccentric exercise (Rawson et al., 2001).
protein kinase [delta], [zeta], [theta]) that in turn interfere directly with insulin signaling pathway leading to a decreased incorporation of glucose transporters (GLUT-4) into the sarcolemma
Hypoxia and ischaemia increase the permeability of sarcolemma
to sodium--for example, Flear et al found a considerable increase in sodium permeability during elective ischaemic anoxic arrest during heart surgery.
The fine sarcolemma
membrane disruption by the above toxins in cobra venom results in abnormal [Ca.sub.2.sup.+] influx inducing various types of cellular pathology [35, 55].
This kind of RT training might be beneficial because of two factors: (a) a larger number of repetitions may elicit a larger translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to sarcolemma
and, consequently, larger glucose uptake; (b) muscle contractions until failure might elicit a hypertrophic muscular signalization, inducing increase in muscle mass , the largest site of glucose uptake in the human organic system.
During mechanical damage to muscles, sarcomere myofilaments are disrupted, the sarcolemma
is damaged and fibers disintegrate .
In physiologically normal condition, L-type [Ca.sup.2+] channels (LTCCs) at the T-tubules of the sarcolemma
are activated by an action potential (AP).
Ziegelhoffer, "Remodelling of the sarcolemma
in diabetic rat hearts: the role of membrane fluidity," Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol.