Detections included microcystin (eight of eight investigations), anatoxin-a (three of four), saxitoxin
(two of five), and cylindrospermopsin (two of five).
During an NIH-funded study, the researchers used specially designed fat-based particles called liposomes to package saxitoxin
, a potent anesthetic, and produced long-lasting local anesthesia in rats.
Two potent neurotoxins, tetrodotoxin in riparian stream environments and saxitoxin
in coastal ocean environments, are introduced into communities by limited sources as a means of chemical defense.
We propose characterizing this food poisoning syndrome as saxitoxin
puffer fish poisoning (SPFP) to distinguish it from PFP, which is traditionally associated with tetrodotoxin, and from PSP caused by STXs in shellfish.
Lyngbya wollei is a filamentous, mat-forming cyanobacterium that has been shown to produce saxitoxin
, a paralytic shellfish poison.
Certified reference materials (CRM) used were decarbamoyl saxitoxin
(dcSTX), neosaxitoxin (NEO), saxitoxin
di-hydrochloride (STX), gonyautoxins 1-5 (GTX1-5), A'-sulfocarbamoyl-gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (C1&2), decarbamoylneosaxitoxin (dcNEO), and decarbamoyl gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (dcGTX2&3).
The toxicity level in the bay reached 74 microgram saxitoxin
per 100 grams of shellfish meat, or higher than the regulatory limit of 60.
levels were reported to have been higher in shellfish in the region during spring 2011 than in previous years (Kate Sullivan, University of Alaska Southeast, personal communication, 2011), indicating that the increase in the number of cases might not have been a surveillance artifact.
There are three kinds of neurotoxins: anatoxin a (ANTX-a), anatoxin a(S) (ANTX-s) and saxitoxin
Here, the guanidine alkaloids tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin
(STX) are used to illustrate recent research findings that coalesce neurobiological and ecological paradigms.
Harmful algal blooms that release biotoxins, such as saxitoxin
and domoic acid, have led to several recent beach closures for shellfish harvesting [Commission on Asian Pacific American Affairs (CAPAA) 2004; Washington Department of Health (WADOH) 2004].
Shellfish toxicity level in the bay reached 74 microgram saxitoxin
(AugSTXeg)/100 grams of shellfish meat, which was beyond the regulatory limit of 60, according to the advisory.