13-14) In the inferior neck at the level of the anterior and middle scalenes
, the C8 and T1 nerve roots form the inferior (lower) trunk and then each trunk of the brachial plexus divides into the anterior and posterior divisions as the plexus passes through the cervico-axillary canal posterior to the clavicle.
29-31) Olinger and Homier (29) and Buford et al (32) suggest that the scalenes
have the ability to ipsilaterally rotate the cervical spine and can be stretched with both ipsi and contralateral rotation.
Accessory muscles of inspiration include the scalenes
(C5-C8), sternocleidomastoid and trapezius (C1-C4), and intercostals (Tl-Tll); whereas forced exhalation (cough) occurs with contraction of the abdominals (T5-T12).
At temperatures between -5[degrees] and -8[degrees]C, Yamashita (1973) used adiabatic expansion to generate an ice cloud that consisted of 10%-19% trigonal crystals and a further 37%-82% were scalene
hexagons (30%-64% were scalenes
with threefold symmetry).
Strengthening the serratus anterior as a protractor in place of the pectoralis musculature; 3- Strengthening the deep cervical flexors in place of the SCM and scalenes
(this is often obtained by making sure that the chin is somewhat tucked when performing flexion); 4.
Lateral neck muscles, in particular the scalenes
, were equally tense, restricting optimal blood flow to and from the head/ eyes.
Delayed onset muscle soreness was consistently reported by subjects in the anterior neck region, which is the location of the other muscles of inspiration including the sternomastoid, scalenes
, as well as the so-called "strap muscles" (ie, hyoid muscles).
1) Right Scalene
/ In order to stretch the right scalenes
and (2) Sternocleidomastoid sternocleidomastoid, the patient was Stretch instructed to sit upright in a chair and to use a sheet (1) or the left hand (2) to hold the right shoulder down.
Ligaments: Longitudinal ligaments, transverse ligament of the atlas Muscles: Sternocleidomastoid, scalenes
, splenius capitis, longissimus capitis, semispinalis capitis Mechanism of Neck Injuries Axial Compression: Usually occur when the cervical spine is in forward flexion but may occur at any position when a blow is delivered to the top of the skull.
Both exams were significant for weak shoulder retraction, moderately tight upper trapezius, scalenes
, and levator scapulae, but the second exam was not as severe as the first.
The accessory muscles of inspiration include the scalenes
, sternocleidomastoids, trapezius, and external intercostals.