In the case of wind, the data source is the sensors located on the meteorological satellites that can measure fields over water bodies, e.g., Advanced SCATterometer
sensors (ASCAT) on the METOP A and B satellites (EUMETSAT).
Rott, "A method for estimating soil moisture from ERS scatterometer
and soil data," Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.
Satellite altimeter and scatterometer
data are now available from a range of platforms (e.g., ERS2, ASCAT METOP-A, Krogstad and Barstow ).
Mastenbroek and de Valk  developed a semiparametric retrieval algorithm (SPRA) based on Hasselmann's nonlinear theory  by separating the wind-driven wave and swell--the wind-wave information is provided by synchronous scatterometer
measurements and the swell information is derived from the rest of the SAR signal.
Outlier detection in scatterometer
data: neural network approaches.
Their topics include using a geographical information system to assess hydropower potential within the Upper Indus Basin in Pakistan, predicting flood-vulnerability of areas using satellite remote-sensing images in Japan's Kumamoto City, monitoring soil moisture deficit using satellite data from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission: correspondence through rainfall-runoff model, predicting Caspian Sea level fluctuation using artificial intelligence, and soil moisture retrieval from bistatic scatterometer
measurement using fuzzy logic system.
Satellite 1 -- or SCATSAT-1 -- spacecraft is designed to serve as a stopgap to help measure ocean winds following the failure of the OSCAT instrument aboard the OceanSat-2 satellite in February 2014.
The Advanced Scatterometer
(ASCAT) on the Meteorological Operational satellite (MetOp) of the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) is a C-band (5.255 GHz) radar, whose primary objective is to determine the wind field at the ocean surface (Figa-Saldana et al., 2002).
For the sensor-based method, the majority of sensors dedicated to measuring visibility distances (such as scatterometer
, transmissometer) are expensive to operate, and these sensors are often quite complicated to install and calibrate correctly.
A Global Climatology of Surface Wind and Wind Stress Fields from Eight Years of QuikSCAT Scatterometer
Passive (radiometer) or active (scatterometer
) satellite microwave sensors allow the identification of regions that experienced icing conditions resulting from rain-on-snow events or melt-and-refreeze cycles (e.g., Grenfell and Putkonen, 2008; Bartsch et al., 2010).
RapidScat is a scatterometer
instrument that flies aboard the International Space Station.