Identification of phage display peptides with affinity for the tegument of Schistosoma japonicum schistosomula
. Mol Biochem Parasitol 180: 86-98.
Schistosoma mansoni: in vitro schistosomicidal activity and tegumental alterations induced by piplartine on schistosomula
. Exp Parasitol.
Infected snails were induced with light to shed infectious larvae (cercariae), as described by Colley and Wikel , and the cercariae were mechanically transformed to postinfective larvae (schistosomula
or somules), as described Stefanic et al.
Sena et al., "Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula
tegument (Smteg) immunization in absence of adjuvant induce IL-10 production by [CD4.sup.+] cells and failed to protect mice against challenge infection," Acta Tropica, vol.
Activity of this extract against newly transformed schistosomula
was higher than the activity against an adult worm .
In this case, mice may be treated orally using single or multiple oral doses at different life-cycle stages (e.g., schistosomula
, juvenile, and adult worms).
While migrating through the vascular system of infected mammalian hosts, parasites evolve from the schistosomula
migratory form into adult worms, causing endothelial cell activation, immunological responses, and tissue damage.
Kelbanoff, "Peroxidase-mediated toxicity to schistosomula
of Schistosoma mansoni," Journal of Immunology, vol.
Macrophage cytotoxicity against schistosomula
of schistosoma mansoni involves arginine-dependent production of reactive nitrogen intermediates.
Most vaccine candidates target schistosomula
antigens, and promising results in animal models have been obtained.
sativa crushed seeds against different developmental stages of S mansoni infection, at the time of infection (immature schistosomula
< 14 days post infection), during schistosomula
maturation (14-21 days Pi), at the time of schistosomula
maturation (>21days PI) and after the beginning of egg laying (>35 days PI) (Davies et al.
. These are tailless cercariae that are transported through blood or lymphatic vessels to the right side of the heart and lungs producing symptoms such as cough and fever.