The liver was characterized by the presence of a few schizonts
in hepatocytes and endothelial cells and a very large number of macrophages filled by characteristically shaped basophilic merozoites contained in parasitophorous vacuoles, a typical invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane of host cells that surround the parasites.
The main form of immunity involved in protection is cellular, mainly played by T cells in the nucleus of the intestinal group (GALT), since GALT has an immune function and triggering effector responses, but immunity does not expand cell invasion by schizonts
, only development of the schizonts
in the interior, delaying the infection (DIETERT et al., 1994; LILLEHOJ, 1999; GALHA et al., 2008).
The grading and percentage of parasitaemia were done by counting schizonts
, ring and amoeboid forms under oil immersion.
The trophozoites and schizonts
were isolated by a discontinuous Percoll column (60, 70 and 80 % gradient in ascendant form) previously described by Spencer, Quintana, and Hidalgo (2008).
Smears having trophozoite, schizonts
and gametocytes were considered positive as per malaria diagnosis standard criteria set by World Health Organisation (WHO).13 Slides were stored in a secure slide box and were reconfirmed by microscopy expert.
They form preerythrocytic schizonts
and multiply by schizogony, culminating in the production of 8-24 first generation merozoites that are released into the blood when the liver schizonts
burst open .
All asexual forms of malaria parasites (trophozoites and schizonts
) in each preparation were identified microscopically using oil immersion objective x100 and recorded.
At this stage, the targets are free merozoites and intraerythrocytic parasites (schizonts
Then, sporozoites mature into tissue schizonts
, which rupture and release merozoites (liver stage).
may exist in different forms such as ring forms (trophozoites), gametocytes and schizonts
. Babesia spp.
The microscopical changes observed at 6 day post infection (DPI) were mild destruction of the enterocytes with developing schizonts
in T1, stunting of villi in T2 (Figure 2), loss of villi architecture, infiltration of inflammatory cells and presence of schizonts
in T3, whereas, large number of second generation schizonts
and infiltration of inflammatory cells in unimmunized infected group T5 (Figure 3).
IV Pre-erythrocytic schizonts
and/or hypnozoites of Chesson and North Korean strains of Plasmodium vivax in the chimpanzee.