Variation in sclerophylly
among Iberian populations of Quercus coccifera L.
Landscape fire has been the subject of several environmental histories that reach back millions of years to describe the northern migration of Australia away from its Gondwanan relations, its leaching, drying and increasing susceptibility to fire, and the shift in vegetation from rainforest to sclerophylly
(Franklin, 2006; Griffiths, 2001; Pyne, 1998).
The combination of morphological and physiological traits associated with sclerophylly
may facilitate tolerance of negative turgor pressure under water stress as well as a higher degree of stomatal regulation (Duhme & Hinckley, 1992).
The low availability of nutrients in Cerrado soils and the elevated rate of leaf sclerophylly
have been used to explain the low leaf herbivory caused by chewing insects (Neves et al.
and oligotrophy environments: relationships between leaf structure, mineral nutrient content, and drought resistance in tropical rain forest of upper Rio Negro region.
Gall-forming and free-feeding herbivory along vertical gradients in a lowland tropical rainforest: the importance of leaf sclerophylly
In southern Brazil, where precipitation is constant and the soil is relatively fertile, sclerophylly
is determined by the reduced temperatures.
Soil phosphate and its role in molding the Australian flora and vegetation, with special reference to xeromorphy and sclerophylly
tends to be associated with good root development as the plants try to reach the deep layers of soil which contain water reserves.
Grubb (1986; see also Kummerow 1973) noted these alternative forms of leaf strengthening in discussing modes of sclerophylly
, describing leaves with sclerified vasculature as the "kite" model and those with thickened epidermis as the "chocolate box" model, but did not make any prediction as to which type of sclerification might be more common in which situation.
A corollary of this hypothesis is that sclerophylly
and extended leaf longevity, typically characteristic of plants in low-nutrient habitats, decrease as nutrient availability increases.
Carbon-based leaf defenses such as leaf sclerophylly
and tannin also can vary between seasons, and are higher in evergreen trees in the dry season (Janzen and Waterman, 1984; Dirzo and Boege, 2008; Gotsch et al.