HcAs are members of a protein superfamily that includes (a) insect and crustacean phenoloxidases whose functions include sclerotization
of the cuticle, wound healing, and humoral immune defense (Whitten and Coates, 2017); (b) hexamerins (HEX), metal-free proteins present in insects that do not bind oxygen but that are considered storage proteins associated with molting cycles or nutritional conditions (Burmester, 1999a); (c) copper-free pseudo-hemocyanins or cryptocyanins (pHc or CRY) that are similar to hemocyanin but appear to act as storage proteins in the hemolymph (Burmester, 1999b); and (d) hexamerin receptors (reHEX) that are present in dipterans and are related to their own ligands (Burmester and Scheller, 1996).
PSH is a relatively rare benign tumor with the characteristic of prominent sclerotization
and vascularization of the lung tissue. The epithelial origin of the tumor is also supported by thyroid transcription factor-1 and epithelial membrane antigen positivity in both the surface cells and round cells in the majority of the cases.
These body dimensions are more precise predictors than body length to identify instars, due to the high sclerotization
of the head and pronotum, while body length may change as a result of body expansion caused by the ethanol.
The biochemical 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) acts in several aspects of insect biology including circadian rhythms, neurotransmission, tanning of cuticle, immunity, sclerotization
, melanization, and wound repair in insects (Birman et al.
Differences were noticed in head sutures, chaetotaxy, male and female terminalia, subgenital plates and male genitalia, also in their body sclerotization
, pigmentation and morphometry.
Tyrosinase is also associated with the host defense, wound healing, melting, and sclerotization
of insects .
The limited cuticle sclerotization
of termites permits the use of histological markers such as Sudan red-7B, Nile blue-A or Neutral red (Su et al., 1991; Evan, 1997).
The length and width of the left ovary with sclerotization
of cortex and medulla were 3.06 [+ or -] 0.46 and 2.23 [+ or -] 0.05 cm.
In oviparous species, the uterus houses the egg capsule during its sclerotization
and thereafter, until oviposition.
Abdomen: Tergites 1-7 rectangular with complete sclerotization
, and a complete row of posterior setae, in males and females; T8 not sclerotized in males and females.
39, with small procurved lateral posterior copulatory openings; internal structure typical for members of subgenus Helafricanus, with converging seminal ducts and spermathecae; atria without strong sclerotization