poisoning is an allergy-like reaction to eating fish that has begun to spoil.
For scombroid poisoning or neurologic symptoms, DOHMH considered whether symptoms and onset were consistent with scombrotoxin
, ciguatera toxin, or botulism poisoning.
poisoning episodes, histamine is normally found at >200 ppm in the incriminated food.
(37) The third category relates largely to large deep-sea fish like tuna or mahi-mahi, whose flesh contains histamine or scombrotoxin
if they are held too long without refrigeration after they are caught.
Fish can harbor naturally occurring toxins such as scombrotoxin
and ciguatoxin, while shellfish can play host to microbial hazards such as Vibrio bacteria or noroviruses.
More than 80% of the seafood-related outbreaks were caused by scombrotoxin
or ciguatoxin, heat-resistant toxins found in warmwater species of fish.
The majority of problems were related to two specific cases: consumption of raw molluskan shellfish and consumption of tropical fish which are associated with the naturally occurring ciguatoxin and scombrotoxin
Since the scombrotoxin
is thermostable, it will persist in the canned product and has caused some alarming outbreaks of scombroid fish poisoning, such as in 1973 when it occurred in 232 persons from two lots of commercially canned tuna.