A nobreza, quando chamada a pagar tributos--o scutage
(52) --sob a forma de contribuicao para guerras de conquista ou defesa, tratou rapidamente de limitar o poder tributario.
Continental feudal economies operated on a system of scutage
They particularly objected to the scutage
(payments in lieu of military service) he demanded to support a return to France to reclaim his empire.
A group of rebellious barons, tired of King John's repeated demands for scutage
(10) and his inhumane treatment of prisoners, took up arms against the cruel and petty ruler (11) under the banner of the "Army of God." After taking London in April 1215, the baronial army famously met John at Runnymede on June 15 and presented him with a mediation agreement drafted by Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, (12) that promised to return London to the Crown in exchange for the king's signature on and adherence to the agreement.
3 that is certainty mother and nurse of repose he that holdeth by castle-guard pays no scutage
(Pound, Cantos, 77) Selinunt' is from the Italian Selinunte, which in turn derives from the Greek name of a colony in Sicily, while Akragas is the city now called Agrigento.
But the seeds are there, both in the making of Magna Carta and in its 12th chapter: "No scutage
or aid [two kinds of taxes] shall be imposed in our kingdom, unless by the general council of our kingdom." John himself complained to the pope that his assent had been coerced, but with the reissues by his heirs, that point became moot.
Many are very specific to the Middle Ages - dealing with property ownership, the workings of the justice system, and taxes with no modern equivalent ("scutage
" and "socage" anyone?)
(377.) This practice was referred to as scutage
or a shield tax.
Part 2 examines the consequences of the alienation of secular fiefs to monastic houses from a legal and economic perspective, that is, property-owning services such as scutage
or military service.
"Scumble": to scunner and not to hate,/to scupper and keep the taste,/to hide under the thick scurf/of scurile life that yearning/to scurry itself leaps out/and is able to see its own scut,/obsolete as old scutage
./scutched, then, my mountainous love/with the scutcheon of no hope/my nonhoping scute hides me ./pour, fate, then, into my scuttle/so that I can scuttle away my love,/I still have faith as scutum/tho time's scythe cuts away my autumn.
By agreeing that "[n]o scutage
nor aid shall be imposed on our kingdom, unless by common counsel of our kingdom," (61) King John limited the Crown's power to raise revenue and injected the "common counsel" (that is, Parliament) into the process of financing government.
From the historical summary page, users can also discover the meanings of "carucate," "danegeld," "scutage
," and "tallage," as well as visit the Tax History Project via the provided external link.