Common complaints in females (n=206) were menstrual irregularity, headache, galactorrhea, primary or secondary amenorrhea
and weight gain, whereas headache, gynecomastia, short stature and blurred vision were common in males (n=27) (Table 2).
Some strategies will need to be additionally utilized when specific clinical issues also need targeting: infertility, hirsutism, acne vulgaris, hair loss, overweight, secondary amenorrhea
. The following is based on the published research and my clinical experience.
Patients and Methods: A total of 363 patients, whose ages were between newborn to 38 years, were referred to Cytogenetics Department of Public Health Laboratories Division in the National Institute of Health, Islamabad during January 2011 to December 2016 (six years) with complaints of Down syndrome, Turner's syndrome, ambiguous genitalia and primary/ secondary amenorrhea
. Karyotyping i.e.
Keywords: Infertility, oligomenorrhea, secondary amenorrhea
, reproductive hormones, hormonal imbalance.
These women usually present secondary amenorrhea
, with progressive degradation of functional ovarian tissue.
Two dancers had fatigue fractures and 3 had a history of secondary amenorrhea
. The average BMD was 1.305 [+ or -] 0.12 (g/[cm.sup.2]), and in all these cases the Z-score was higher than -1.0.
The patient was given the medroxyprogesterone acetate challenge test for suspected secondary amenorrhea
and returned for follow-up, after 1 month.
, which is defined as 3 months of absence of menstruation, occurs in approximately 3–5% of adult women.
All our patients had some form of menstrual problem ranging from oligomenorrhea, irregular menses to secondary amenorrhea
. This matches with other studies in which menstrual irregularities were observed from 60% to 93%.
Excessive sports, poor diet, and stress tend to contribute to the onset of primary or secondary amenorrhea
; polycystic ovary syndrome is another possible cause.
She attained menarche at the age of 10 (now 12 years of age), but had developed secondary amenorrhea
for the last 1 year.
Some other forms of FSHR have been identified in women with PPOI and secondary amenorrhea
, moderate ovary dysfunction and family history of PPOI(8).