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LH surge causes ovulation and during secretory phase causes luteinisation of granulosa cells to secrete progesterone, which helps in the formation and maintenance of corpus luteum.
BT was least around the Ovulatory Phase or mid-cycle, and it increases during secretory phase [Table 1].
In the secretory phase, glandular cells show an increase in cell size and microvacuolation.
Some studies showed infertility as the most common indication for endometrial biopsy and secretory phase endometrium as the commonest morphologic pattern encountered [3].
In total, 13 cases (68.4%) had dysmenorrhea, 13 cases (68.4%) were in the proliferative phase, and 6 cases (31.6%) were in the secretory phase. The EM stages were determined according to the revised American Fertility Society Classification, and there were 5 cases (26.3%) of Stage I–II and 14 cases (73.7%) of Stage III–IV.
An immunohistochemical analysis in the non-pregnant endometrium shows increases of endometrial [CD56.sup.+] NK cells during the secretory phase (alleged time of implantation).
In our study, predominant number of patients in the age group 36-45 years showed normal physiological changes such as proliferative and secretory phase patterns.
Comparison of GPER Expression between Proliferative Phase and Secretory Phase. In Table 3, the GPER protein and mRNA expression in the proliferative and secretory phase were compared, separately in women with and without adenomyosis, and in the JZ and OM.
the level of proliferating phase is significantly higher than that of secretory phase, and the ERa level is remarkably higher than that of ERb.
Morphological changes in endometrium of infertile women included; secretory phase in 102(63.75%), disordered proliferative endometrium in 28(17.5%), irregular maturation endometrium in 11(6.8), proliferative endometrium in 8(5%) complex hyperplasia in 6(3.7%), simple hyperplasia in 3(1.8%) and discordance between glands and stroma in 2(1.2%) cases.
Estrogen affects the proliferative phase whereas progesterone is responsible for the secretory phase of menstrual cycle.