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VEGF receptors exhibited the strongest expression during the beginning of the secretory phase, coinciding with the developing endometrial edema and formation of a complex subepithelial capillary plexus (13, 14).
p27 staining was observed in the nuclei of the glandular cells in the functional layer of the secretory phase endometrium, whereas it was negative in those of the proliferative phase.
Moreover, research with different techniques has demonstrated that (a) the endometrial production of urocortin increases throughout the endometrial cycle and is highest in the secretory phase, (b) ovarian steroids stimulate urocortin secretion from cultured endometrial cells, and (c) urocortin induces endometrial cell decidualization (5).
With the delay in circadian phase and the delay in the melatonin secretory phase that accompany puberty, preadolescents and adolescents in particular "are under enormous physiological pressure to delay their sleep cycle"--to stay awake until late at night and to rise late in the morning.
LIF is a substance that is produced in the female reproductive tract and is naturally secreted by the endometrium during the secretory phase (time of embryo implantation).
The endometrium goes through a radical transformation during each menstrual cycle, which can be divided into three parts: the proliferative phase, the secretory phase, and the menstrual phase.