Self-focused attention denotes self-referent
awareness of internally generated information (Ingram, 1990).
To capture how audience members relate themselves to a risky behavior, this study examines actual self-referent
thoughts stimulated by a narrative message.
Most researchers have based their self-referent
effect research on a strong association between self and object, whereby a positive attitude toward the object is promoted (Perkins & Forehand, 2012).
As literature has distinct terms to express these concepts, this essay will henceforth use the term "self-referent
" for person and "referent" for other.
First, individuals could organize the to-be-remembered list into categories of items that are self-referent
versus items that are not selfreferent (Klein & Kihlstom, 1986).
Consistent with the notion that self-identity may be hierarchical (Marsh & Craven, 2006), athletic identity may have subcomponents, including self-referent
aspects of athleticism and social aspects of athleticism (Martin, Eklund, & Mushett, 1997; Martin, Mushett & Eklund, 1994).
The study aimed to investigate whether there are differences in the style of counterfactual thinking of people with and without signs of depression, considering the structure (additive, subtractive and substitutive), the direction (upward or downward), the target of change (self-referent
and hetero-referent) and the most modified aspects of reality, accordingly to the literature (action/inaction, obligation, time and unusual event).
(2007) examine the association between mastery-avoidance and motive to avoid failure in the workplace, a construct that notably also focuses on self-referents
. Mastery-avoidance is theoretically distinguished from performance-avoidance by using a self-referent
rather than an other-referent.
If you don't know such people, it is very unlikely to know them later because you cannot act as a self-referent
for such an imaginary acquaintance.
Social judgment literature has provided ample support for the pervasive role of self-referent
information in people's judgments of others (see Dunning, 2002, for a review).
However, Meyers-Levy and Peracchio (1996) also found that when the motivation to process messages is low, participants do not respond to self-referent
Depew informs me that the word was first referred to in 1623 in psychiatric literature and means self-referent