where a and b are the

semimajor axis and semiminor axis, respectively.

ISS orbit

Semimajor axis (km) 6780 Eccentricity (degrees) 0 Ascending node longitude (degrees) -94.354 Inclination (degrees) 51.64 Mean anomaly (degrees) 254.215 Table 5: Operational temperature limits.

The most unfavourable case of congruence examination for a point concerns the direction of the

semimajor axis of the confidence ellipse because in that direction the determination error for a point position is maximal.

The meaning and role of Keplerian elements Symbol Meaning Role [a.sub.s]

Semimajor axis Define the size and shape of [e.sub.s] Eccentricity the trajectory [OMEGA] Longitude of the Define the orientation of the ascending node orbital plane.

Therefore, using such a system, it is possible to compensate for the

semimajor axis of the ellipse of the hodograph of the induction vector of the magnetic field and to obtain a sufficiently high screening efficiency for a weakly polarized MF.

The sizes of 3D grain can be described by the equivalent radius r, semiminor axis radius [r.sub.2],

semimajor axis radius [r.sub.1], and major axis radius [r.sub.3].

[18] estimate the BC by comparing the change in

semimajor axis according to TLE data with the change in

semimajor axis due to drag computed by propagation using an initial state from TLEs.

In the subsequent sections a simple elliptical orbit configuration is presented to get insight of elliptical orbit and defines some of the important parameters such as orbital position, eccentricity, and

semimajor axis. During satellite launch, satellite is subjected to various external loads resulting from vibroacoustic noise, booster ignition and burn out, propulsion system engine vibration, steady-state booster acceleration, and much more.

where [alpha] and [beta] denote the

semimajor axis and semiminor axis of the ellipse, respectively, and d is the maximum distance between the chord and the elliptical arc that corresponds to the chord.

Table 1 presents orbital elements: a:

semimajor axis, e: eccentricity, i: inclination, [OMEGA]: longitude of the ascending node, [omega]: argument of perihelion, and M: mean anomaly The orbits are computed from 569 astrometric positions from which 8 observations were rejected as outliers, and also on 29 radar observations with 4 observations rejected as outliers.

We find the

semimajor axis, semiminor axis, and center of the ellipse.

By using both the

semimajor axis and the orbital period as constraints, one obtains a linear regression fit with [R.sup.2] > 0.999.