Fruit capsule usually dehiscent, septifragal
or loculicidal, rarely indehiscent; seeds usually winged, rarely without wings (Woodson et al., 1973; Gentry, 1980; Lohmann, 2004).
The fruits are stipitate elongate-elliptical septifragal
capsules with two to three wings formed from a 3-carpellate ovary (Ferrucci, 2006).
(0) ventricidal, (1) septifragal
, (2) irregularly dehiscent, (3) indehiscent.
One is the 'Serjania group', comprising schizocarpic genera like Serjania, Houssayanthus and Lophostigma, and the other clade ('Paullinia group') consists of the mainly septifragal genera Paullinia, Cardiospermum and Urvillea (WECKERLE; RUTISHAUSER, 2005).
Thus, the three ventral bundles immersed in the parenchyma remain on the fruit axial region--comprising the columella--typical of septifragal capsules (Figures 3D, 4F to 4H).