A variety of organisms attach to the shells of molluscs, including algae, protozoans, sponges, hydroids, anemones, serpulid
worms, limpets, mussels, barnacles, tanaids, amphipods, tunicates, and others.
Taphonomically, important encrusters whose have hard-parts include bryozoans, serpulid
worms, foraminifera, corals and barnacles (Parsons and Brett, 1991; Perry, 2000; McKinney, 1996, El-Hedeny, 2005, 2007a, b).
In surveys carried out in the initial section of a creek tributary to the Gulf of Paria, Venezuela, several specimens of the exotic serpulid
polychaete Ficopomatus uschakovi were collected.
For example, in the Mexican (western) Caribbean, the serpulid
polychaetes of hard bottom substrates were described by Bastida-Zavala & Salazar vallejo (2000).
Similarly, the inception of bottom fishing was implicated in the declining abundance of four species of tubicolous serpulid
polychaetes in the Irish Sea (Bradshaw et al.
Thirty years later, Ehlers (1887) identified Spirobranchus incrassatus (Kroyer, 1863) in the Bay of Acapulco, the first record for the Mexican Pacific, but it was not until 1904 that Bush described a new species from the Mexican Pacific region: the serpulid
Eupomatus humilis, a species currently valid as Hydroides humilis fide Pillai (1972).
In certain conditions the tubes can become very dense and form reefs, known as serpulid
Attached to the surface are coiled serpulid
worm skeletons, muddy or chitinous tube worm casts (Pogonophora) up to 5 cm long, brittle starfish, and benthic foraminifera.
2), and various prismatic structures have been described in serpulid
polychaetes (ten Hove & Zibrowius 1986; Zibrowius & ten Hove 1987).
It was also reported in a serpulid
tube at the center island of Islas Benitos, Baja California, Sur on 5 August 1998 (R.
During the duckling decades, thousands of acres of Great South Bay oyster bottom that once produced prized Blue Points, produced only a bumper crop of serpulid
Reefs are constructed by various kinds of organisms including, among others, oysters, vermetid gastropods, serpulid
polychaetes, calcifying algae (in particular red algae or Rhodophytes), hydrozoans, and corals.