In South Africa, for example, the writings of sufi shaykhs
are widely circulated and since the shaykh
's writings such as Zubdat ul-Asrar have become available in English they have gradually find their way into the hands of those wishing to know more about the spiritual path and more about the thoughts of this heroic Southeast Asian shaykh
At the same time, the way in which Shaykhs
Amin Tarif and Jabr Mu'addi exploited the rivalry for influence over the Druze community between these two Israeli officials in order to advance their own positions is one of most important elements in this study.
They functioned as economic entrepreneurs and political power brokers, squeezing out the smaller and middle gentry drawn from the Janissaries, the ulema of religious scholars, Sufi shaykhs
, and small merchants.
As Teitelbaum explains, "For many radical Sunni fundamentalist shaykhs
, the fatwa that allowed Christian troops into the Kingdom crossed a red line.
Later there will follow two additional shaykhs
, one with two dogs, one with a she-mule, but it is the ghazala we remember.
To his subjects, he was a man of many guises: liberal democratizer, monarch, descendant of the Prophet, secularist, shaykh
of all tribal shaykhs
, and a refuge for the Palestinian people.
(awliya', "friends of God"), by personal contact with the sultan or through their protective presence (walaya) within his dominions, were seen as providing a sanction for rulership (chapter four).
He studied under a number of shaykhs
, including the controversial Shaykh
Sulayman al-Ulwan who was arrested by Saudi authorities in 2004 for supporting al-Qa'ida.
Although the countryside and the deep rural settlements are clearly dominated by the Shaykhs
of the nomadic tribes, market-town politics exhibits a delicate balance of power and influence between tribal Shaykhs
and the market-town elite of Jallaba origins.
While the Salafis were divided among numerous shaykhs
during Mubarak's era and barred from forming umbrella organizations or networks, they managed to quickly unite after the revolution.
While elders and shaykhs
are mostly drawn from what are called "shaykhly" families (those families that have long produced the clan or tribe's leaders), the shaykhs
and elders can be replaced if they fail to fulfill their obligations to their constituents.
He met prominent religious scholars, muftis and shaykhs