In the limit of linear viscoelasticity, the linear relaxation modulus is independent of the

shear strain. The damping function is unity when the

shear strain is relatively small, that is, within the linear viscoelasticity range.

Primitive research in ductile shear zone proposed that the heterogeneous simple shear is a dominate deformation regime (Ramsay, 1980; Ramsay and Allison, 1979; Ramsay and Graham, 1970; Simpson, 1981; Watts and Williams, 1983) but recent research indicates that in most of the shear zones involve three-dimensional combinations of simple and pure

shear strain, such as transpression and transtension zone (Bhattacharyya and Hudleston, 2001; Montesi, 2013; Liang et al., 2015; Fossen and Cavalcante, 2017; Behyari and Moghadam, 2018).

In this case, high resolution digital image correlation, with the assistance of grain orientation mapping and scanning-electron-microscopy imaging of gold remodelled surfaces, will be used to quantify

shear strain in slip traces formed near the crack tip during fatigue loading.

shear strain at different confining pressure suggest that the confining pressure has greater influence at strains 0.01 and 1% that progressively reduces at larger strains at 2 and 2.5%.

In Figure 3, p' is mean vertical effective stress, [tau] is shear stress, [gamma] is

shear strain, [[gamma].sub.d] is

shear strain difference between failure and transformation conditions and PT is the phase transformation surface.

According to ASTM D5379 the test requires strain gauges for the test, as there is no clear correlation between displacement of static machine traverse and

shear strain in specimen.

John & Zahrah (1987) developed an analytical procedure for estimating the free-field longitudinal, normal,

shear strain and curvature, due to P, S, and Rayleigh waves, as shown in Table 1, which formed the basis for the subsequent closed-form solutions for the estimation of internal forces of underground structures.

However, after the model was loaded, a potential

shear strain belt that was linked in its shear stress field was obvious, and the belt passed through a point of loading which was distributed in the shape of an arc

were executed to determine the stiffness and damping at 100%

shear strain with coexisting gravity/dead weight load and earthquake-induced axial forces.

Figure 5 shows some typical curves of the shear stress versus

shear strain for the test specimens, where the shear stress has a general tendency to increase with the

shear strain increasing.

In order to ensure that the hybrid [A.sub.F][B.sub.0][D.sub.S] laminates will not cause hygrothermal shear distortion, its thermal

shear strain should meet following relationship.

where [[epsilon].sup.tp.sub.v] is the volumetric plastic tensile strain, [[epsilon].sup.sp.sub.v] is the volumetric plastic

shear strain, and [psi] is the dilatancy angle.