Detection of in vivo DNA damage induced by very low doses of mainstream and sidestream smoke
extracts using a novel assay.
contains much higher percentages of tar, nicotine and noxious gases than exhaled smoke since exhaled smoke has been filtered by the smoker's lungs.
In such circumstances e-cigarette is a new product in market, which is at aim to shrink the concentration of toxic compounds to mainstream and sidestream smoke
along with help in giving it up.
There are two primary sources of second-hand tobacco smoke: sidestream smoke
that is released into the air directly from the smoldering end of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe and the mainstream smoke that refers to the smoke inhaled and then exhaled to the environment.
There are two types of tobacco smoke; one is mainstream smoke, which is inhale through the mouth from the end of cigarette, and second is sidestream smoke
, which come from the burning tip of cigarette.
It is promising that compared with cigarettes, ENDS lack sidestream smoke
and the vapor has not been found to contain carbon monoxide.
pH determination in the tobacco and sidestream smoke
Smoke that burns off the end of a cigarette (called sidestream smoke
) may be more toxic than the mainstream smoke a smoker would inhale.
 In a study from Mumbai, shown the levels of nicotine and minor tobacco alkaloids in the main-stream and sidestream smoke
.  A study demonstrated that ETS exposure for at least 2 h per day resulted in a mean birth weight reduction of 85 g and a twofold increased risk of LBW among the infants of non-smokers.
The report describes how mainstream smoke and, to a greater extent, sidestream smoke
, inhibit the activity of genes that protect the heart and lungs, and activate genes associated with an increased risk of heart disease.
Changes in cytokeratin expression patterns following 8-day exposure to room-aged cigarette sidestream smoke
," Toxicologic Pathology, vol.
Zimmermann, "Time-resolved analysis of the emission of sidestream smoke
(SSS) from cigarettes during smoking by photo ionisation/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-TOFMS): towards a better description of environmental tobacco smoke," Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol.