"This is established through a group of mobile transcription factors that move from the protophloem sieve element
(PSE) to the neighbouring cells, to promote cell division, and to develop their own identity.
The waveforms described are the sieve element phase (represented by waveform E, and divided in the process of active salivation (El) and phloem ingestion (E2), xylem feeding (G), pathway phase (P), potential drop (pd), and non-probing (Z) (Todd et al.
The following parameters were assessed: (1) time from beginning of recording to first probe, (2) time from the beginning of recording to first sieve element phase, (3) number of pathway phases, (4) number of xylem phases, (5) number of sieve element phases, (6) number of non-probing events (resting phase), (7) number of potential drops [intracellular stylet puncture), (8) duration of pathway phases, (9) duration of xylem phases, (10) duration of non-probing events, (11) duration of sieve element phases, and (12) number of A.
The topics include fundamentals of phloem transport physiology, roles of plasma membrane transporters in phloem functions, sieve element
occlusion, the effect of long-distance signaling on development, and the behavioral and molecular-genetic basis of resistance against phloem-feeding insects.
The time to the first sieve element penetration with saliva secretion (E1) brief (U = 178, P = 0.004), but the time to first sieve elements with sap ingestion (E2) was not significantly different (U = 299, P = 0.262).
invicta the total duration of the path wave was significantly shortened as well as the time of first sieve element penetration with saliva secretion (E1), whereas the duration of the F waveform was not significantly different between the ant-tended and untended treatments.
An invitational review paper on the physiology of the phloem (Esau et al., 1957) had brought the once controversial matter of plasmolyzability of the sieve element into relation with other concepts concerning the connection between structure and function in the conduit of the phloem tissue.
One of the studies on the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) contributed to the characterization of the P-protein, a common cell component in the sieve element of dicotyledons.
In-cab adjustment of the chaffer's louver opening and the sieve elements
is also included on the self-leveling shoe system.
. These cells measure 208 (180-242) [micron]m long by 38 to 45 [micron]m wide; the cell wall width is 2 to 3 p.m.
Living material is a prerequisite for fixation of sieve elements
and the eventual investigation of their plastids with the transmission electron microscope.