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The Sabin property is underlain by intermediate and minor felsic volcanic units that exhibit widespread alteration comprised of garnet, staurolite, sillimanite and sericite metamorphic mineralogy.
The Kollam coastline is rich in minerals like ilmenite, rutile, zircon, monazite, leucoxene, sillimanite and garnet.
Finally, quartz, illite, sillimanite ([Al.sub.2]SiO5), and magnetite (Fe3O4) were identified as vestige mineral phases in both zones, as shown in Table 4.
New products of calcium magnesium silicide (CaMgSi), sillimanite ([Al.sub.2](Si[O.sub.4])O), kaolinite ([Al.sub.2]([Si.sub.2][O.sub.5])[(OD).sub.4]), feldspar ([Al.sub.2][Si.sub.2][O.sub.8]), and trikalsilite ((KNa)AlSi[O.sub.4]) were formed.
Caption: Figure 2: Geological map of the study area ([5] E: 1/1000000): 1, anatexite granite; 2, schist; 3, mica schist; 4, syenite; 5, tray basalt; 6, syn-tectonic granite (Monzonitic, discordant with biotite); 7, anatexite or migmatite with biotite); 8, embrechite gneiss; 9, Upper gneiss (grenatifere with two micas); 10, quartzite (Lom group, Mbalmayo-Bengbis, and Ayos); 11, Sedimentary formation of cretaceous; 12, upper mica schist with chlorite (Poli group); 13, low gneiss (with biotite, amphibole, pyroxene, sillimanite and hypersthene); 14, amphibolite (para- and ortho-: greenstones); 15, pelites; 16, post-tectonic granite (microgranite); 17, calcoalkaline orthogneiss.
The semiquantitative estimation of bulk clay mineralogical composition showed that the most abundant mineral was smectite, with 48wt%, followed by quartz (21%), plagioclase (11%), feldspar (9%), sillimanite (7%), illite, cristobalite, and albite (4%).
It also contains small percentages of feldspar, illite, montmorillonite, ilmenite, anastase, haematite, bauxite, zircon, rutile, kyanite, sillimanite, graphite, attapulgite, and halloysite [15, 16].
The Upper Siwaliks are characterized by the appearance of heavy minerals, sillimanite and hornblende (Dennell et al., 2008).
The metamorphic rocks of the Silgara Formation in the Santander Massif (Figure 1) were metamorphosed to upper amphibolites facies during the Caledonian orogeny, developing a sequence of metamorphic zones (biotite, garnet, staurolite and sillimanite) that defines the regional thermal structure.
In contrast, the Melford Formation has somewhat different rock types, including biotite, biotite-cordierite, sillimanite, and garnet-bearing schist, marble, quartzite, and granitic orthogneiss (White and Boehner 2008).