The knight in the meantime, had brought the strings into some order, and after a short prelude, asked his host whether he would choose a sirvente
in the language of oc, or a lai in the language of oui, or a virelai, or a ballad in the vulgar English.
I remember well that, at the siege of Retters, there was a little, sleek, fat clerk of the name of Chaucer, who was so apt at rondel, sirvente
, or tonson, that no man dare give back a foot from the walls, lest he find it all set down in his rhymes and sung by every underling and varlet in the camp.
I did not include Gormonda de Montpellier's sirventes
, a pro-Catholic response to troubadour Guilhem Figueira's sirventes
attacking the church, partly because it was too long, but mostly because her political affiliations differed so in kind and tone from the other poems translated here.
The terza rima form that he used may have derived from the sirventes
genre of Occitan poetry used by the troubadours, notably Bertran de Born, the favourite of Ezra Pound.
were frequently based upon the rime or metrical structure or melody of a pre-existing song, generally a canso (a love song); they are but one indicator of a broader and even older troubadour practice that Torn Gruber has dubbed a "dialectics," in which a troubadour may take up with subtle alterations a sequence of keywords, a rime pattern, or a metrical scheme used by another, in order either to link his song to the preexistent one, or to revise its themes.
Furthermore, conclusions concerning the troubadours--that later poets were more given to irony due to the increasing prevalence of the sirventes
--are not borne out by scholarship (not cited by Toury) on irony, the sirventes
, or later troubadour lyric.
In another song, 'Miez sirventes
vueilh far dels reis amdos' (ll.
Bonfaci Calvo, the troubadour from Genoa, combined Occitan, Galician, and French in a sirventes
(Riquer, Trovadores 3: 1422-23).
Catherine Leglu proposes here to explore a restricted corpus of troubadour songs in order to raise questions about the nature of parody in general and its particular manifestations in the troubadour sirventes
, an often neglected genre whose considerable interest Leglu's work, here and elsewhere, commendably highlights.
Kastner, `Bertran de Born's sirventes
against King Alphonso of Aragon', Modern Philology, 34 (1937), 225-48 (p.
8) It should be noted that the manuscripts that have survived until today do not contain any `satirical' songs or sirventes
attributed to Raoul or Thierri de Soissons -- what we have is twelve love songs and one jeu-parti.
In a sirventes
by Reforsat de Folcaquier, one Guillems is charged with a series of sins, and Reforsat admonishes him for his behaviour, `que per destral no.