Mike Layton is the author of books Birmingham's Front Line and Reporting for Duty Close shave with skinheads
FOURTEEN days after the Bull Ring battle, it was the skinheads
' turn to cause trouble.
"There were rockabillies, there were punk rockers, there were skinheads
Described as 'skinheads
' in our archives, the cropped hair, heavy-duty work boots and straight-legged trousers being part of the trademark style, along with button-down shirts and braces, echoing the working class, practical clothing that suited their employment and lifestyles.
Amid graffiti-scarred streets, we see the skinheads
on the prowl, young lads tearing down the back lanes of old Benwell on home-made 'bogies', and Dunston Power Station pumping out smoke across the Tyne.
They're all like business-casual skinheads
. They all wear bomber jackets to work.
"And furthermore, we don't endorse any neo-Nazi, white supremacist, skinheads
, or 211 or anything like that - we don't hold events, we don't invite them, we don't want them here."
Interviews with local residents carried out by a young Jonathan Dimbleby contain strong language as they relate encounters with skinheads
, police discrimination and social deprivation.
Marshall (1994, 1997) suggests there are three main skinhead
groups, Traditional, SHARP (SkinHeads
Against Racial Prejudice), and neo-Nazi skinheads
Later came the skinheads
and the punks with rings in their ears and noses and skinheads
who the rockers battled who wore Doc Martin boots and had short cropped hair.
They were textbook skinheads
: headstrong, music-loving youths in checkered button-ups, Dr.
Kaique Batista dos Santos, 16, had all his teeth pulled out with pliers and was battered to death by a gang of skinheads