Arms embargoes are a type of smart sanction
(others include financial and travel sanctions) increasingly used in the post-Cold War era by the international community in responding to threats to peace and security.
In a report issued earlier this year, the group which is opposed to the lift of sanctions called to focus on smart sanctions
that spare the Sudanese people who were affected by the 20-year embargo.
The nine papers examine the legal basis of EU sanctions against Iran and Syria, the compatibility of targeted sanctions with human rights, and what the UN rule of law declaration means for UN smart sanctions
to the smart sanctions
imposed against members of parliament.
Bush's administration, with Under Secretary of the Treasury Stuart Levey and others taking the lead, who devised the smart sanctions
that, once expanded upon and reinforced by Mr.
As a result, many observers have recently called on states to pursue smart sanctions
to curtail trade in weapons and aviation parts, curb money laundering, and block accounts and money transfers in an effort to strike at the foundations of rogue regimes, guerrilla organizations or terrorist groups.
Generally speaking, use of smart sanctions
should be expected, which will be reinforced in time and lead to increase of the transaction expenses and gradual decrease of the economic interdependency of the EU and Russia, Gligorov concludes.
KEYWORDS: Security Council, sanctions committee, targeted sanctions, smart sanctions
, functional differentiation, principal-agent, counterterrorism, al-Qaeda.
As sombre as it is, it nevertheless remains important that the major elements of those smart sanctions
remain in place.
In her recent article in this journal, Joy Gordon provides an astute history and critique of the evolution and application of smart sanctions
within the United Nations system since the mid-1990.
Marietje Schaake (ALDE, Netherlands), calling for smart sanctions
, said in a statement that "the EU needs to step up its efforts to increase the pressure on President al-Assad, especially by targeting the business elite that is funding his horrific violent campaign".
Others have suggested shrewd or smart sanctions
as a means of reducing the negative externalities that would otherwise result from sanctions (Cortright & Lopez, 2002; Eyler, 2007; Koddenbrock, 2008; O'Sullivan, 2003).