To make matters worse, the area also contains a belt of loose mud and rocks - known as a 'solifluction
The features monitored in a number of sites include latelying snow beds (zabois), active travertine springs, debris flow channels, and stone rings and solifluction
lobes characteristic of periglacial terrains (Brookes 1993).
The role of aridification in constraining the elevation range of Holocene solifluction
processes and associated landforms in the periglacial belt of the Sierra Nevada (Southern Spain).
The distinctive elements are: (a) a rock mass with a potent upper zone of limestone (300 m), failed and partially dissolved; (b) that after the movement, rotation and intense fragmentation occurs in blocks; (c) intermediate zone of marl and clay (<30 m), which is essentially impermeable and allowed the existence of a perched water level before the movement, facilitating the entry of water into the upper breaking surface and saturation conditions in the lower regions; (d) a lower zone of silty sand and kaolinite clay (Utrillas facies) (150 m), sometimes with a high percentage of kaolinite (40%), which suffered a fluidification (or solifluction
), facilitating the continuity of the breaking surface which happens to be curved to be flat and horizontal.
But 1970-81 provided Ross's classical treatment of disturbance to permafrost terrain (1970); segregation as the origin of massive ice (1971); preservation of permafrost and ground ice beneath the Laurentide ice sheet (1972); the origin of offshore permafrost (1972); the development of pingos from pore-water expulsion (1973); the influence of snow cover on ground temperatures (1974); the characteristics of thermal contraction cracking (1974); experimental demonstration of pingo growth (1977); identification of an early-Holocene thaw unconformity (1978); the origin of hummocks (1980); and plug-like flow in solifluction
Such as abrupt bending forces from earthquakes or frozen slopes prone to slumping (they have a word for that, too--"solifluction
These deposits are overlain by a palaeosoil resulting from solifluction
. In this "Eemian Soil" the river pebbles are resedimented with reddish-brown loess.
Climatostratigraphic subdivision is based on "interfingering" of fluvial and solifluction
covers at the base of hillslopes; a feature indicative of coeval deposition in a periglacial climate zone (Klimaszewski, 1971).
For the past four years, our team has applied ERT in order to investigate the internal structure of periglacial landforms in Southern Carpathians, i.e.: rock glaciers, scree slopes, patterned ground, earth hummocks, debris cones, solifluction
lobes and solifluction
The deluvial and solifluction
sands and silts appear within the valleys of small streams, flowing out of the highlands, within the dry valleys and on the slopes.
Climate slightly improved during the Bolling chronozone, contributing to solifluction
processes and slow formation of soils.