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Then solution was sonicated for 30 minutes and sample was dried on electronic hot plate at 100 AdegC.
First, added 0.01 wt% of GO to molten caprolactam (100 g) and the mixture was sonicated at 85[degrees]C for 30 min to obtain a homogeneous dispersion.
At the same time the dried graphene oxide was added in dichloromethane and sonicated in an ultrasonic bath for 2 hours to make a dispersion.
Three algal treatments were tested: filtered and re-suspended cultured algal cells; filtered, re-suspended and sonicated cultured algal cells; sonicated al gal mixture (> 90% Ostreopsis cf.
TCPP (20 mg, 0.024 mmol) was added into N,N-diethylformamide (4 mL) in a small capped vial and sonicated for 10 min for dissolution.
Two mL of sample C (concentration of 0.2 mg/mL) was sonicated at 42-45 kHz using the maximum electrical power around 200 W (Crest CP1200 Ultrasonic).
For in vitro exposures, particle suspensions were prepared as stock solutions of 1 mg/ml in distilled water and sonicated in an ultrasonic water bath (50 Hz, UM-2, Unitra-Unima, Olsztyn, Poland) for 1 hour.
In a small beaker, 2.0 g of pristine CNTs was added to 3: 1 [H.sub.2]S[O.sub.4]/HN[O.sub.3] (sulphonitric mixture) and sonicated with ultrasonication water bath for 2 hours at 70[degrees]C.
The glass pieces were cleaned and then sonicated in piranha acid solution and ammonia solution for surface hydroxylation.
A small piece of the acidic pretreated carbon cloth (2x3 [cm.sup.2]) was first immersed in the CS carrier/cross-linking reagent solution and sonicated for 10 min to coat the CS/TPP cross-linked on CC surface followed by transferring the cross-linked CC into the NaOH solution to precipitate the coated CS.
The isolated splenocytes were diluted to 2 x [10.sup.6] cells/mL in medium and cultured in the presence of either medium alone, sonicated LVS whole cells (10 [micro]g/mL, Dstl), sonicated Schu S4 whole cells (10 [micro]g/mL, Dstl), purified ExoA (5 [micro]g/mL, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK), or Concanavalin-A (Con-A, 5 [micro]g/mL, Sigma-Aldrich).
The filtered material was sonicated in 100 mL dimethylacetamide (DMA) for 24 h.