To achieve these structures, some input energy, for example, mechanical (stirring or sonicates
) or heat is required.
. Bacterial sonicates
were obtained by complete sonication of a bacterial suspension used for phage propagation.
were then centrifuged for 10 min at 10000 rpm at 4[degrees]C, and supernatants containing chromatin extracts with an average size of 500 bp were immunoprecipitated with 2-4 [micro]g of each specific antibody per sample.
Western blot analysis for the presence of specific proteins or for phosphorylated forms of proteins was performed on whole-cell sonicates
and lysates from MCF7 and MDA-MB-435S cells.
Interestingly, in a study by Alberda et al which critically ill patients were assigned to receive viable probiotics (VSL#3), equivalent probiotic sonicates
or placebo, although most of the patients showed a reduction in CRP concentrations over the treatment period, patients receiving viable probiotics had a lesser decline in CRP concentrations than patients receiving either placebo or bacterial sonicates
Leishmania promastigotes sonicates
induced in vitro proliferation and IFNy production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from individuals that never had contact with leishmania parasites.
A number of antigens which can be detected when present at a concentration of 3-20ng/mL include mycobacterial sonicates
, tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) and antigens 5, A60, P32 and LAM, detected through sandwich or inhibition ELISA, latex agglutination or reverse passive hemagglutination (RPHA) tests.
Western blotting: Sonicates
of pre and post inductions of cloned GST-SK in E.coli and also a purified SK were run on SDS-PAGE.
Since the cross-reacting material is PorA, it is present in sufficient quantity in bacterial sonicates
used in the direct ELISA for all strains to be positive.