Spadefoots were heard calling on the night of 20 May 2014, and 16 male spadefoots were captured on the night of 21 May 2014.
The 9 sample COX1 amplicon sequences from the YNP spadefoots were completely identical, which indicated they were from the same species.
At that time, the closest known Indiana locality for spadefoots was 65 miles to the southeast.
2013) also informed us that Nathan Engbrecht heard spadefoots calling at 10 locations in Vigo and Parke counties in 2011 or 2012.
We currently lack the data to test this hypothesis for spadefoots
, but in facultatively cannibalistic salamander larvae, pathogens are no more likely to be transmitted among kin than among nonkin (D.
For now, on this summer night, the spadefoots
lick insects out of the air.
Differentiation of mating call in spadefoots
, genus Scaphiopus.
While adult spadefoots
and other frogs and toads can absorb water while buried, another amphibian, the siren, has evolved a very different mechanism for staying moist during dry spells.
Precise numbers of emerging metamorphic individuals have not been accurately estimated; however, in some years the landowners report a 'carpet' of recently metamorphosed spadefoots
around the site.
In the southern United States, Eastern Spadefoots
breed any time of year, whereas further north breeding activity is restricted to the warmer months.
But when moisture temporarily transforms the region into a landscape of wildflowers and waterholes, the spadefoots
awake, dig out and move to newly created ponds to breed.
Complete removal of the Goldfish resulted in rapid colonization and metamorphic success at the site by Great Basin Spadefoots
(Spea intermontana) and Pacific Treefrogs in the same year; however, no larval Barred Tiger Salamanders were found at the site.