Knock intensity control can be insufficient to realize maximum efficiency operation, since in knock-free operation, where the knock control is supposed not to react and the spark advance
control is purely in open-loop, external environmental disturbances like air humidity , engine ageing, and cylinder-to-cylinder differences, which cannot be taken into account by the open-loop SA controller, can result in sub-optimal operation.
* in case of increased speed, duration time at high temperature decreases along with emission; nevertheless, this phenomenon is also influenced by spark advance
With reference to the above discussed literature overview, in this paper, a more detailed experimental analysis of the water injection technology is presented with the aim to quantify its impact on main engine performance parameters, such as fuel consumption and IMEP, and control parameters (knock-limited spark advance
, A/F ratio and TIT).
Yuba Ball Tread tractors all had high tension magneto ignition with automatic spark advance
, and water pump cooling systems.
Also designed specifically for industrial engine use, the S-15 system has a programmable spark advance
map a direct interface with GM EST-style distributors, an internal main fold absolute pressure sensor, a programmable rev-limiter advance curve compensation for gasoline and LP engines with engine temperature compensation.
Automatic spark advance
later was built into the distributor.
In doing this, the only information needed is Spark Advance
angle and (an estimate of) the dwell start time (or angular position).
The Electroair's spark advance
varies by engine and aircraft application and can be as much as a total of 45 degrees BTDC, according to Electroair's Kobylik.
In absence of experimental data, a proper calibration of several control parameters, such as Spark Advance
(SA), throttle opening, Waste-Gate (WG) opening, and Air-to-Fuel (A/F) ratio, is mandatory all over the operating plane.
Furthermore, in cases where MBT conditions were attained by spark advance
, mild knock was observed experimentally and hence a knock analysis (KnockAnalysis) object was added to the GT power engine model to account for knock in the end gas zone by detecting and characterizing pressure oscillations.
mechanical." The description of the Lycoming IE (2) system again raises the question of why most of us are still flying behind antiquated mixture, ignition and engine control systems, when even the most economical compact car sports electronic ignition, fuel injection and variable spark advance
This forces to adopt a sub-optimum Spark Advance
(SA) angle, thus reducing maximum temperature and knock intensity, while correspondingly increasing exhaust temperatures, with respect to maximum efficiency conditions.