1 Anterior part of 4th antennal segment dark brown; apical margin of male paramere almost straight with distinct and quite thick apical spin; spermathecal
bulb with four processes of variable shape and size .
This is especially noted for the lengths of the spermathecal
duct and diverticulum, as well as the epiphallic cecum.
4% of wild females contained spermathecal
contents indicating the female had mated twice.
Female: Cibarium with four radiated triangular horizontal teeth, an irregular row of small vertical teeth, and complete arch; spermathecal
individual ducts shorter than 4 times the length of the furca stem; spermatheca broader than long, spherical, without annulations, narrowest than spermathecal
common duct (Ibanez-Bernal 2003).
Preliminary research on spermathecal
loads among primiparous and multiparous females in the eastern Bering Sea has shown that they were significantly lower than those of females in the Gulf of St.
This is a small subfamily characterized by the presence of a blunt process on the right maxillary stylet; the pedicellus with membranous rings inserted between sclerotized areas; the hind wing with a broad postcubital sector; hook-shaped parameres; endosomal struts absent; genital sclerites hidden between sternite 7 and tergite 8; proximal portion of the lateral spermathecal
duct has a very elaborate and thick wall; they also show a bifid scutellar posterior process (Weirauch, 2008).
The female differs in the relatively short and compact spermathecal
Theyonly described and illustrated the spermathecal
bulb, while not describing the external terminalia because these were damaged in the paratype.
duct thin and long, slightly expanded near base of inner base of spermatheca (Fig.
opening above the ventral valves (Belyaeva and Dovgobrod, 2006) was not visible due either to damage during dissections or incomplete removal of subgenital plates.
The genus is characterized by long hose-like atria, vestigial vasa deferentia, small or completely lacking prostate glands, and presence (in most species) of simple-pointed and distally grooved, often nib-shaped, spermathecal
duct lacks an appendix, is about 11mm long, slender, and enters the free oviduct shortly above the atrium to form a short vagina.