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Cholesterol levels on the spermatozoon plasma membrane regulate the abundance of these carbohydrate receptors because when capacitation occurs a cholesterol increase is observed caused by the presence of its acceptor molecules.
The boar spermatozoon is especially susceptible to peroxidative damage generated by ROS, due to the high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids present in its membranes.
Hu et al., "Seminal plasma leptin and spermatozoon apoptosis in patients with varicocele and leucocytospermia," Andrologia, vol.
Despite a minimum number of epididymis used, we evaluated the mitochondria of each spermatozoon singly, as experimental unit.
The spermatozoon flagellum is divided into four distinct segments: the connecting, middle, principal, and end pieces, and it is composed of four major structural components: the axoneme that spans the whole length of the flagellum, the outer dense fibers surrounding the axoneme in the middle and principal pieces, the mitochondrial sheath located in the middle piece surrounding the outer dense fibers and axoneme, and the fibrous sheath in the principal piece (Inaba, 2011).
(2011) Dynamics of flagellar force generated by a hyperactivated spermatozoon. Reproduction 142, 409-415.