To explain the observed phenomenon, we proposed that some of the paramagnetic centers in the GQD particle are coupled by strong exchange interactions, creating a ground electronic state of such system with total

spin angular momentum of S = ns, where n is the number of centers in the GQD particle and s = 1/2.

The electromagnetic field carrying the

spin angular momentum (SAM) known as the polarization had been widely studied in the past, while the other intrinsic physical property of the electromagnetic field, that is, orbital angular momentum, was not discovered until it was reported in Allen group's research [1] in 1992.

The structure of electron may be visualized as the point charge in a circular motion with

spin angular momentum. The frequency of rotation is equal to the zitterbewegung frequency and the radius of rotation is equal to half the average Compton wavelength.

Spin angular momentum includes the rotation's speed and the direction in which that spin points.

where M and J are the mass and

spin angular momentum of the black hole, respectively, and [l.sup.2] is related to the cosmological constant A by [l.sup.-2] = -[LAMBDA].

It has been found that mass loss from a set of identical protoplanets can account for the differences in mass, chemical composition and the

spin angular momentum of the planets (e.g., Williams & Bhattacharjee 1979).

The magnetic moment of the electron is fundamentally coupled to the quantum mechanical

spin angular momentum: when a torque is applied to the magnetization, the intrinsic response of the electron moment is precession, much like how a gyroscope precesses under the influence of the Earth's gravitational field.

The Beth angular momentum is in general considered as the photon

spin angular momentum.

In addition, it is labeled with the vibrational quantum number v and rotational quantum number J', where J' = F' - I and I is the total nuclear

spin angular momentum quantum number (13).

This angular momentum, derived from the classical mechanics, may be considered as the

spin angular momentum of the photon since it is generated by the self-rotation around its central axis.

According to Stephenson and Morrison, tidal braking causes an increase in the LOD of (23 [+ or -] 1) x [10.sup.-6] seconds per year, which causes a decrease in the Earth's

spin angular momentum, and by conservation of angular momentum causes an increase in the Moon's orbital angular momentum.