These protozoa use bivalves as intermediate hosts for gametogonic and sporogonic
life stages and complete their life cycle in the digestive tract of crustaceans.
02 Village Daily survival Days of Survival, d rate sporogonic
([dagger]) ([paragraph]) development # [p.
Plas modium falciparum: Inhibition of sporogonic
development in Anopheles stephensi by gram-negative bacteria.
development of Haemoproteus meleagridis (Haemosporina: Haemoproteidae) in Culicoides edeni (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae).
A third level in which the parasite's life cycle can be interrupted is the sporogonic
phase, which occurs in the mosquito's intestine.
To be passed on to humans, the parasite requires successful completion of the sporogonic
cycle in the midgut and the salivary glands of the mosquito (6).
Marginal malaria areas are found either in arid climates or in regions exhibiting temperatures only slightly above the sporogonic
temperature threshold of 16 -18[degrees] C (Detinova 1962).
40,42) These findings are also consistent with laboratory studies that demonstrate thermal constraints on sporogonic
development of P relictum in experimentally infected Culex quinquefasciatus.