As the endophyte Geosmithia pallida didn't sporulate
, sporulation was induced using different media viz., potato dextrose agar, czapeck dox agar and malt extract agar amended with different concentrations of dextrose, peptone, yeast extract and sucrose.
If the unsporulated oocysts come into contact with moisture, they sporulate
(infectious) and once ingested by other birds as they scratch and feed, they get infected.The oocysts can also be transmitted through shoes, farm equipment, contaminated water and feeds.
However, because many isolates do not sporulate
, morphologic identification in the clinical microbiology laboratory is difficult without molecular techniques, and antifungal susceptibility testing is impossible to perform (3).
Faecal samples containing oocysts were mixed with potassium dichromate (2% final concentration) and allowed to sporulate
at room temperature.
Fresh fecal samples were collected into 60-mL plastic tubes containing 1 mL 2.5% aqueous potassium dichromate solution (KyCryOy), (11,20) placed in cardboard boxes to avoid light, and allowed to sporulate
. Most oocysts completed sporulation within 72-94 hours at 22 [+ or -] 2[degrees]C (71.6 [+ or -] 3.6[degrees]F).
These oocytes sporulate
and get infective (Kheysin, 1972).
Fecal samples containing oocysts were broken apart in 150-mm petridishes, spread out in a thin layer of 2.0% (w/v) aqueous [K.sub.2][Cr.sub.2][O.sub.7], and kept at room temperature for 3-6 days to allow the oocysts to sporulate
; thereafter, the samples were stored at 4[degrees]C.
They were allowed to sporulate
in 2.5% potassium permanganate (Reid and Long, 1979).
It is consumed by the warm blooded animals and humans which act as intermediate host where oocytes sporulate
and transformed into infective stage (tachyzoites of 4-8 um length and 2-3 um width) of the protozoa in the suitable environment.
Notwithstanding, unsporulated oocysts with autofluorescent oocyst walls could be observed, but these oocysts did not sporulate
in the cell culture slide or outside under air supply (Figures 2(n)-2(r)).
Several sequenced Trichoderma isolates were obtained as sterile mycelia on agar plates and did not sporulate
until the end of the laboratory experiments in May 2010.
The infection periods for the disease are in the winter, when the fungi sporulate
and enter vines through pruning wounds.